The present review summarizes the data about the use of intermittent normobaric hypoxia (INH) in the treatment and prevention of both acute and chronic diseases of the nervous system in children. The INH method is used in pregnant women with fetoplacental insufficiency, anemia and for mental disorders correction. The INH efficiency in relation to such pathology as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, enuresis, sleep disturbances, autonomic dysfunction is proved. The age dependence of bioelectric activity of the brain in practically healthy persons (age from 8 to 21 years) on hypoxic factor and the most sensitive period of age from 13 to 16 years is shown. The results the own studies have shown that the children which are born and live in radioactive contaminated areas (RCA), the course of INH sessions led to the restoration of somatovegetative status: activation of higher vegetative centers, optimization of sympathetic and parasympathetic links; positive influence on the activity of the cardiovascular system; ventilatory capacity of lungs; blood parameters.