Journal article // Eureka: Health Sciences






Use of Platelets Rich Plasma as a Factor of the Reduction of the Risk of Early Postoperative Complications in Patients with Postoperative Ventral Hernias
Dmitro Atanasov

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Abstract

Non-tensioned allohernioplasty with a polypropylene mesh implant has several disadvantages associated with the local occurrence of non-specific long-lasting inflammatory reactions in response to a foreign body. Excessive exudation in the implantation zone leads to the formation of seromas, requiring puncture aspiration, which significantly increases the treatment time. In the long-term, chronic prolonged inflammatory process leads to the formation of coarse connective tissue, which explains the development of biomechanical complications. Growth factors, introduced by platelet rich plasma (PRP), stimulate the release of regenerative cytokines, reduce local inflammatory manifestations in the integration of homoplastic grafts and reduce the incidence of postoperative complications.Aim: through the use of plasma enriched with platelets reduce the severity of early postoperative complications in patients with postoperative ventral hernias.Materials and methods. A clinical study was performed in the surgical department of the center for reconstructive and restorative medicine (university clinic) of the Odessa National Medical University (ONMedU) in the period from 2013 to 2019: 84 patients were operated because of postoperative ventral hernia. The average age of patients was 60.1±7.6 years. The size of hernial defects was on average 8.2 cm. The average BMI was 31.8 kg/m2. According to indications, patients underwent a standard surgical extent of intervention: hernia repair, allohernioplasty of the anterior abdominal wall with a lightweight (80 g/m2) polypropylene implant. After the plastics of the main group, a prosthesis implantation zone was infiltrated with activated autologous PRP, which was prepared by double centrifugation, in a volume of 14–38 ml. There was a control group in which PRP infiltration was not performed. The cavity above the mesh implant was actively drained by Redon for 2–4 days. An ultrasound examination was performed and, if necessary, fine needle aspiration of serous fluid over the mesh was done.Results. The evaluation of the postoperative period (up to 28 days) in patients of both groups. In none of the cases were manifestations of allergic, pyrogenic, local inflammatory or infectious complications. According to the quantitative assessment of early postoperative complications as well as the assessment of the degree of pain syndrome subjectively, according to VAS, the postoperative period in the main and control study groups was almost identical. The need for puncture aspirations and the total volume of discharge was significantly less in the main study group. The dependence of the severity of the effect of the proposed technology on such factors as the size of the hernial defect, the nature of plastics, and body mass index was noted. The greatest efficacy was demonstrated in the group of patients undergoing plastic surgery with the placement of a mesh implant in direct contact with subcutaneous fatty tissue for large-sized hernias (W2+) in the presence of concomitant obesity.Conclusions: the risk of development and the severity of fluid accumulations in the area of allohernioplasty can be predicted taking into account such risk factors as the size of the hernial defect, the nature of plastics, the presence of concomitant pathology, overweight. The technique of soft tissue infiltration in contact with a polypropylene prosthesis is safe, without significantly increasing the risk of local or systemic complications. The proposed method significantly reduces the risk of development and the severity of fluid accumulations in the area of implantation of the prosthesis. The effectiveness of technology is significantly higher compared to groups of patients with a high risk of seromas formation.

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