: A Non-Muslim President in a Muslim State: Islamic Political Discourse in Contemporary Indonesia. This article charts the political discourse amongst Islamic leaders regarding the possibility of a non-Muslim becoming President in Indonesia, the world's most populated Muslim state, an important issue but one that is only seldom discussed in an academic context. Until recently, classical Islamic discourse on this issue, which has generally rejected this possibility, had tended to be trapped in a normative model of analysis which today seems intolerant and rigid. This article contends that this discourse, to some extent, does not properly appreciate the complex social, cultural, historical and political realities of the Muslim community today. Indeed, many other contemporary scholars view this mode of discourse as failing to respond to the current social-political dynamic, especially those scholars coming at it from a multicultural democratic perspective. Perhaps most importantly, the legal reality—even though there is a reasonable degree of controversy surrounding it—which is that there is no criterion that the President has to be Muslim, is also rejected by this discourse.