Integrasi Pendekatan Bayâni, Burhânî, dan ‘Irfânî dalam Ijtihad Muhammadiyah

Afifi Fauzi Abbas
Journal article Ahkam: Jurnal Ilmu Syariah • Januari 2012

Abstrak

Integration Approach of Bayânî, Burhânî, and ‘Irfânî in Muhammadiyah Ijtihâd. Al-Jabirî offers three approaches (bayânî, burhânî, and ‘irfânî) to Islamic studies. The Bayânî approach is the philosophical study of knowledge development system that positions the text (revelation) as an absolute truth. The Burhânî approach is structured on the reasoning of Burhânî starting from the ta'aqqulî process of abstraction to reality. In the mean time, the approach of ‘irfânî is an understanding based on spiritual experience and intuition (dzawq, qalb, wijdân, bashîrah). If each is permitted to proceed on their own (parallel), the benefit achieved will be minimal. Thus, if the interrelationship with each other is linear, one of them will arise as superior among the others. Muhammadiyah tries to interweave the three of them, a complementary and functional relationship, so they will have the spiral circular relationship.Keywords: bayânî, ‘irfânî, burhânî, textual, contextualAbstrak: Integrasi Pendekatan Bayâni, Burhânî, dan ‘Irfânî dalam Ijtihad Muhammadiyah. Al-Jâbirî menawarkan tiga pendekatan (bayânî, burhânî, dan ‘irfânî) untuk studi keislaman. Pendekatan bayânî merupakan studi filosofis terhadap sistem bangunan pengetahuan yang menempatkan teks (wahyu) sebagai suatu kebenaran mutlak. Pendekatan burhânî berpola dari nalar burhânî, bermula dari proses abstraksi yang bersifat ta‘aqqulî terhadap realitas. Sedangkan pendekatan ‘irfânî adalah pemahaman yang bertumpu pada pengalaman batin dan intuisi (dzawq, qalb, wijdân, bashîrah). Jika masing-masing dibiarkan berjalan sendiri-sendiri (paralel), nilai manfaat yang dapat diraih akan sangat minim. Demikian pula, jika dibiarkan hubungan antara yang satu dengan yang lainnya bersifat linear, maka hanya memunculkan yang satu lebih unggul dari yang lainnya. Muhammadiyah mencoba ketiganya dijalin berkelindan, saling melengkapi, dan fungsional sehingga hubungannya bersifat spiral sirkular.

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Jurnal

Ahkam: Jurnal Ilmu Syariah

Ahkam: Jurnal Ilmu Syariah diterbitkan oleh Fakultas Syariah dan Hukum Universitas Islam Negeri (... tampilkan semua