Konversi Lahan Sawah Indonesia Sebagai Ancaman Terhadap Ketahanan Pangan

Anny Mulyani • Dwi Kuntjoro • Dedi Nursyamsi • Fahmuddin Agus
Journal article Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim • 2016 Indonesia

Abstrak

. Paddy field conversion is continuing and it is threatening food self-sufficiency target. This research was aimed at analyzing the rate of paddy field conversion and comparing the spatial analytical methods using medium and high resolution images. The research was conducted from 2013 to 2015 in nine important rice producing provinces, namely West Java, East Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi, South Kalimantan, South Sumatra, North Sumatra, and Gorontalo. For the provincial level analysis, the 2000 Landsat TM was compared to that of 2013, whereas for the village and sub-district level analysis (67 villages/sub-districts) the images of IKONOS, Quickbird, and Worldview with 8 to 12 year image time differences as presented in the Google Earth, were used. The results shows that the use of Landsat TM 7 under-estimated the conversion (about 12,347 ha/year in the nine provinses), because conversion of <5 ha is undetectable. Using the Google Earth images the national conversion rate was estimate as high as 96,512 ha/year, with the rates vary from rapid (> 4%/year), moderate (2-4%/year) and slow (<2%/tahun). Paddy fields with rapid conversion rates are estimated to demise by 2025. Those with moderate conversion rates will become only about 200,000 ha in 2045 from 1.7 million ha in 2014. The area of paddy field with slow conversion rate will also decrease with time. The 8.1 million ha current paddy field will decrease to about 6 million ha by 2045, assuming the same conversion rate compared to the historical one. Without significant efforts of safeguarding the existing paddy field and without development of new paddy field, the Indonesian food security targets will go astray.

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