The rapid economic development of PRC especially during the last two decades has prompted its dependence on oil imports exceeding its domestic production. China for the first time exceeded US as the biggest oil importer in 2015 with Africa particularly ‘troubled' countries such as Sudan as its destination. China's oil-based investment in Sudan later becomes International concern since China's non-interference policy was perceived as ignoring Sudan's domestic problems. This research attempts to explain China's oil-based investment in Sudan with focus of analysis on China's strategic interaction with conflict-troubled Sudan using three analytical variables: the identification of state interest, the specification of strategic setting, and the attention to the role of uncertainty. Analysis result shows that China's need for oil to secure its economic growth is China's vital interest as being prioritized by its SOEs as China's strategic instrument based on ‘China First' policy that is permissive towards Sudan's domestic issue.