Two International regimes that govern the access of plant genetic resources and sharing the benefit arising from their uses are the Nagoya Protocol of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA). The two regimes although have been harmonized faced difficulties in its implementation, particularly at the National level and currently under review. Added to the complexity is the emergence of new technology genome sequencing and genome editing as well as synthetic biology. These technologies and the development of open access data may cause people to bypass the benefit sharing provision. Current discussion on access and benefit sharing provision particularly at the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are reviewed.