Number of Establishment Without Legal Entity by Province, 1996-2004 (Indonesia)

Dataset Badan Pusat Statistik • Mei 2009 Indonesia

Dataset ini merupakan bagian dari Koleksi Usaha Mikro Kecil BPS.



  1. An Establishment
    is unit of economics activities operated with the objective of producing goods/services for sale/exchange, with at least one person in charge and assumes the management authority such the authority in human resource development(recruitment), marketing, financial, etc. This concept includes supporting units located in an area separated from the main office building/area. Thus, an establishment can take the form of a single establishment/unit of economic activity, a head office or main office, branch offices/representatives, as well as a factory site or plant, or other supporting units such as storage, marketing office, or other business facilitating unit, which is located separately from the head/main office.

  2. Economic activity
    is an activity or part of activity that results direct or indirectly to the achievement of commercial goal.

  3. An ordinary household
    is an individual or a group of people living in a physical/census building unit or part thereof who make common provision for food and other essential of living.


    • An individual who are renting a room or part of building census, but handle her/his own food, considered as one ordinary household.
    • two persons or more are living in one room together in one building census or physical building, although they handle their own food separately, considered as one ordinary household.
    • Two families who are living in one census building where provision for food is acted and managed by one household member considered as one ordinary household.
    • Two families who are living apart in two building census, then provision of food is acted and managed of one household member, considered asone ordinary household.
    • A group of people who are renting a house (includes food) less than 10 people, thus the house owner and those group of people is considered asone ordinary household.

  4. The criteria of special household are follows:

    • People who are living in dormitory, the living area managed by institution or foundation such as nurse dormitory, Army barrack, etc.
    • People who are living in orphanage, etc.
    • A group of people who are renting a house including the food with total number 10 people or more.

Type of Economic Activity

  1. Main activity
    is an activity that resulting income value larger among several activities in the establishment. If an establishment runs only one kind of activity, then the activity is establishment main activity.

Transport Storage and Communication Sector

  1. Transport establishment includes in SUSI 99 is a transportation establishment conducted by commercially and without legal entity, generally located in certain place and have separated administration record in term of expenses, output/omzet, employee, and employee compensation.

  2. Transport activity
    is an activity to provide passenger transport activity an/or goods/husbandry from one place to ather place by using vehicle or non-vehicle transport owned either by private or others, thoughout land, sea or air to get recompense, aims for commercial, including transport by pipeline and services, supporting and auxiliary transport activity. Vehicle rent without the driver is excluded in the category of transport activity.

  3. Land transport
    includes non-vehicle land transport (ADTB) and vehicle land transport (ADB) are including becak (three wheels non-vehicle car), bycicle ojek.dokar/sado/delman/cimodo, pedati. ADP are including vehicle becak, city transport, village transport, inter city transport, taxi, rent transport (renting a car includes the driver), motorcycle ojek, tout transport; including bus establishment Inter City Inter Province (AKAP) or vehicle land transport for goods and parking business.

    Vehicle used for transportation business owned by private or others, which rented by contract system.

  4. Vehicle parking
    includes parking that established by individual (excluding individual who park the vehicle on duty from parking establishment), or work for an office.

  5. Water Transport
    includes people shipping for passenger or goods (international or domestic), river transport and lake, also across the sea. International shipping people (for goods and/or passenger) includes passenger transport and/or goods that connecting inter harbor in the sea.

  6. River Transport
    and lake are including passenger transport and/or goods in the river and/or lake.

  7. Across the sea transport
    includes the activity of passenger transport and/or goods that connecting two places and as continuing of land trip.

  8. Other Transport and Auxiliary Transport
    covers other business of transport shipping service that been mention, such as agency (ticket sales), also expedition and packing.

  9. Agency
    covers ticket sales of land, sea, or air transport, which are not part of the transport establishment that being agent. If the ticket sales agent only sale the ticket of certain establishment and get commision from the transport establishment is not categorized as Agency Company.

  10. Expedition and Packing
    covers the activity of expedition, packing until the goods arrived to the destination. The service type of expedition and packing establishment is door to door service, means the goods that sent will be under responsible of the expedition company from pick up the goods in the origin door to the destination door.

  11. Storage
    is an activity to do storage goods for temporary, before sent to final destination by receiving the compensation and bearing the risk of goods when in the storage place.

  12. Communication
    is delivering information from someone to other by using language, voice, picture, code, or other communication sign. The business in area of communication is divided into two; telecommunication and post business.

  13. Telecommunication establishment
    is a business of telecommunication service, either domestic or international throughout electronics media/satellite by taking compensation and risk bearing. Kind of telecommunication business is telecommunication kiosk(wartel), and kiosk phone.

  14. Post establishment
    is a service business,expedition of goods,letter and/or money in domestic or international by getting compensation and bearing risk. The coverage of business are: business of private service entrust without legal entity including;courier service without legal entity that conduct the delivery of newspaper,printed goods,small package,wesel post and giro post,includes Post service units.

    the business that specially selling post material and materai, not categorized as post business and giro, but trading business.

  15. Educational attainment
    is the highest educational that finished by enumeration period. If someone has not finished the highest grade but passed the exam is considered as graduated.

  16. Month of Activity
    is a month or months where the establishment do the business activity although one day only.

  17. Workday
    is a day or days where in the business activity at least one person work continuously minimum one hour.

  18. Work hour
    is a time period stated in hour that used for working, excluding formal break,started from preparing the work up to the business closing.
    Average work hour per day is the total work hour activity during a month ago divided by total workday in month.

    Employee and Employee Compensation

  19. Employee/paid worker
    is all employees who usually work at establishment with wages/salary paid and other subsidy from the establishment, in the form of money or goods.

  20. Unpaid employee/unpaid Family Workers
    are the owner who work or family worker who usually active in the establishment or work for other household economics or enterprise without any form of payment.
    For unpaid worker,whether family worker or trainee worker,who works less than one third of normal work hour in the enterprise/business is not categorized as a worker.

  21. Normal work hour
    is a total work hour of the business within one week.


  22. is compensation from establishment to the worker/employee, before tax deduction, in the form of money or good. The estimation of office house rent, vehicle and other kind facilities is categorized into wages and salary although not recorded in the company balance sheet.

    Overtime commison,presents,bonus et cetera.

  23. Overtime commision
    is a commission that paid to the employee/workers who have worked out of usual work hour.

  24. Presents
    is an establishment expense in a form of money or goods that given to the employee/worker. Due to the expense is occasionally;the expenditure during a month for presents can be counted by summarising the total expense for a year divided by 12.

  25. Bonus
    is something that given by establishment to the employee/worker in the form of money or goods, usually paid once year. Therefor, to know the amount of bonus per month bonus in a year divided by 12.

  26. Earnings/Income
    Income understanding for establishment without legal entity is an income that definitely earned and result from other activity related to the establishment during November 1999.

    Transportation, Storage and Communication Sector

  27. Income of transport establishment
    is all income that collected from transporting passenger and/or goods during November 1999.

  28. Income from Supporting and Auxiliary Transport Activity
    is the income from service that should be received regarding the kind of activity, such as travel agent in the form of commision of ticket sales, parking/vehicle entrust in the form of income from vehicle parking paid.

  29. Income from storage establishment
    is all income from the renting storage

  30. Other Income that related to the Establishment, other Business activity
    is an activity that still as one business unity and not as a main activity.

    Capital Constraint and Establishment Prospective

    Source of Capital Owned

  31. Private Capital
    is a treasure that owned by private establishment without contribution/participation from other company/business/enetrprises. For business where the capital came from 2 persons or over and those people involved in the business proceeding,categorized as private capital.

  32. Aid(Hibah)/transfer
    is a capital ownership that given by others,and as an aid without any commitment. Due to the categorized as an aid it is no compulsory for the receiver to return it.

  33. Others
    are a treasure owned by others, where employer has no contribution at all. Others in SUSI 99 are bank, cooperative, financial institution non-bank, family,individual, and others.

    Capital Lend Origin

  34. Bank
    is an institution/foundation running on financial area to do activities of receiving, keeping and lending money. In certain stage of money transaction ease, bank also has an obligation for launching a check/money order, or value letter. In SUSI, the bank origin based on type of lending are KCK, KKU, KUK, Kupedes and Credit Investment.

  35. Credit on Feasible Business (KKU)
    is a credit that lent based on feasibility of the establishment with amount value of 50 million rupiahs and usually needs bond 150 per cent from the proposed credit.

  36. Credit of Small Business (KUK)
    is a credit that lent to the individual or establishment with the maximum credit 200 million rupiahs.

  37. Credit of Canda Kulak
    is a credit that lent to the small class business (bakulan), goods vendor, etc. The credit usually from 3000,- rupiahs to 15000,- rupiahs with 1 (one) percent interest rate per month and maximum credit period is three months.

  38. General Kredit of Village (Kupedes)
    is a credit investment that given to develop a village small business, not only business that helped by MINI/MIDI facilities, but also business from new customer.

  39. Credit Investment
    including kinds of credits that given by the bank for investment purpose, beside KKU, KUK and Kupedes.

  40. Cooperative
    is an organization of economic society with character of social; the membership is an individual or cooperative legal entity that economic structure as a cooperative business based on family foundation.

  41. Financial institution non-bank
    is a financial institution beside bank and cooperative, such as pawnshop, rent-use business (leasing), Ventura capital, anjak-piutang (factoring), credit institution (individual or establishment), etc.

  42. Capital Ventura Establishment
    is a business institution, which doing activity of equity capital into the establishment business partner (invested company) for certain period, including Bank Muamalat/Bank Syariah.

  43. Family
    is a part that has family relationship, directly or indirectly. Direct relation is a blood relation, while indirect relation is a relationship due to marriage.

  44. Individual
    is a credit institution in a form of individual, such as rentenir (person who lent the money with high interest)

  45. Others
    are the other institution that not act as a bank activity, cooperative, LKBB, family and individual lender.

  46. In the Capital difficulties
    half of establishments were not using banking services, due to several reasons.

  47. Do not know the procedure
    is a less knowledge about money lending procedure in the bank

  48. Difficult procedure
    is a mechanic/rule of lending money in the bank is too complicated and difficult

  49. No bonds
    employee guarantee is no guarantee/no bonds such as house certificate, etc that as one requirement for lending money.

  50. High interest level
    is the highest level of interest of lending money from the bank.

  51. No interested
    is not interested/willingness to get lend from the bank

  52. Rejected proposal
    is a proposal to lend a money that been proposed but not approved by the bank.

    Since the economic crisis (July 1977-March 2000), what are the impacts to the establishment?

  53. Not impacted
    is not different between establishment condition/activity during economic crisis and previous period.

  54. Impacted but can be overcome
    is a condition/activity of establishment during certain period from economic crisis generally going down/worse than period before economic crisis, but the establishment condition has been normal like before the economic crisis.

  55. Impacted not yet overcome
    is not only in period of economic crisis but also in enumeration period the condition/activity of establishment generally worse.

  56. Have increased
    is a condition of establishment in general better during the period of economic crisis.

  57. Employer difficulties

    Raw materials difficulties are caused by:

    • The price of raw material/trading goods/spare parts has increased highly.
    • Less suply due to rare/not availability of raw material/trading goods/spare parts in the market in enough number.
    • Distribution/transport problem, is that less of marketing/transport network for providing raw material/trading goods/square part from producer to consumer, and
    • Other problem, are the difficulties in providing the raw material/trading goods/spare part beside the things has mentioned above.

    Capital difficulties that experienced by establishment are the difficulties in fixed capital and/or fluent capital.

  58. Fixed Capital Goods
    is is a capital goods such as land, building, vehicles, machine, table, chair, cupboard, etc that generally has a lifetime more than one year, used as a tool of production and the price is relatively expensive.

  59. Fluent capital
    is a capital including all cash money and production good/trading goods that used for running the owned establishment

  60. Difficulties in distribution/transport electrical energy
    is lack of marketing/transport network for marketing/transport to get close the goods/service that resulted/sold to the market/consumer.

    Difficulties in using the electrical energy are due to :

    • The increases tariff of electricity is the rise of electric tariff per KWh (kilowatt-hour) from producer.
    • The increased price of fuel, is increases price of fuel such as diesel fuel, etc. that used for electrical machine generator.
    • The increased price of square parts electrical machine generator due to is a rising price of spare parts/machine component of electrical generator.
    • The rare of spare parts electrical machine generator due to is a rising price of spare parts/machine component of electrical generator.
    • Others, due to difficulties related to the machine of electrical machine that caused by other things has not mentioned above.

    Difficulties in employee wage matters, caused by:

    • Regional Minimum Wage increases, is the increasing of Regional Minimum Wage
    • Over number of employee that is imbalance number between the total employee employed and the availability of kind of activity
    • Work incentive is a compensation (usually is a form of money) that given by establishment out of usual wage/salary, where the amount is determined by work prestige of employee/worker.
    • The decrease of income business is the decreasing omzet value/output of business, and
    • Others are the difficulties that related to the wage matters of employee caused by others that have no mentioned above.

    Membership and Service that Received by Establishment from the Cooperative

  61. Money Lending/Capital Goods
    is a service of landing cash money/capital goods for establishment needs. The service of providing raw material/trading goods is clearly mentioned above.

  62. Providing Raw Material
    is a service that given by cooperative to provide th raw material/trading goods/spare parts/material/fuel for essential establishment

  63. Marketing
    is a service that given by cooperative to marketing the goods as a result of establishment production.

  64. Counseling/training/illumination
    is a service in a form of work training, information/counseling/proceeding general and for production skill that given by cooperative, carry out to increase the skill or ability to do business related to establishment implementation.

  65. Others
    is a kind of service beside that have mentioned above.

    Kind of counseling/training/illumination follows :

  66. Counseling/training/illumination managerial
    is a kind of counseling/training to increase the skill, establishment in general

  67. Counseling/training/illumination skill/production technique
    is a kind of counseling/training to increase the ability/skill in production techniques

  68. Counseling/training of marketing
    is a kind of counseling/training for increasing knowledge about marketing, such as how to learn consumer needs and wants, how to do selling and promoting

  69. Counseling/training/other ilumination
    is a counseling/training/illumination besides mentioned above

  70. Foster father
    is an individual, establishment, cooperative and government institution or private institution that helps/consults the establishment, which economically weak in the form of marketing, raw material, training, capitalization and other services, which possible for establishment to be developed independently

  71. Partnership
    is work relationship between small and large establishment that beneficial, strengthen and supporting each other.


Small-Scale & Micro Establishments (SME) data are collected through Integrated Survey of Small-Scale & Micro Establishment (ISSME), which is a follow-up survey of the Economic Census concerning only on the establishment without having legal entity. Due to its concept and term being used, obviously the result of the ISSME can be used to reflecting the informal sector, eventhough not in the fully manner.

As a starting point, the number of SME recorded under the 1996 Economic Census was 16.8 million excluding agriculture sector. To have a more complete figure of SME, a sample size of 1.16 million establishments has been selected under the census and out of this 0.64 million was for retail trade. The ISSME itself has been conducting in every year since 1998. There was no ISSME in 1997. The number of sample for 1998 was only 89,000 establishments, conducted once, while for 1999 was 118,000 establishments conducted four times (quarterly) using 29,500 samples for each quarter, among others 11,325 samples for retail trade. The latest survey for 2000 and 2001 respectively employed 59,433 samples or on average 14,850 samples for each quarter.


By location, SME can be grouped into : (a) establishments using fixed location and unremovable equipments, such establishments are usually established only based on a SIUP (Surat Ijin Usaha Perdagangan), many of them even do not have a SIUP; and (b) establishments using unfixed location or located in fixed location but their equipments are removable. 

Viewed from their economic activity, the coverage of SMES are : (a) individually owned mining, (b) small-scale and cottage industry, (c) non state owned electricity company, (d) individual construction activity, (e) trade, restaurant and accommodation services, (f) individual transport, storage, and communication activity, (g) saving & loan cooperative without legal entity, usurer, insurance supporting company and money changer runned by individual, (h) other services.


Two-stage sampling was applied in ISSME to select representative establishment. First, to select a number of enumeration area by using poisson systematic sampling method, second, to select a number of establishments by using systematic sampling method after having the list of all establishments within the selected enumeration area.


Data collection were undertaken through direct interview to the selected establishments within the selected enumeration area. For enumerators, i.e, the people who did the interviews, BPS usually used its permanent staffs from every subregency (kecamatan), called mantri statistik (Mantis). Furthermore, permanent staffs from the BPS office branches also being involved, if necessary.


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