The growth and development of cacao during dry climate differ with there in wet climatic agroecosystems. In other side, information about interrelation among plant characters is needed for plant selection programs. The objectives of this research was to analyze the vegetative characters and number of flowers and fruits of cacao in dry climatic agroecosystems, Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), by using sequential path analysis (SPA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The research was conducted in dry climatic agroecosystems at KP Maumere, NTT, with altitude 50 m above sea levels and sandy loam texture of soil, beginning from Januari until December 2013. The observation method was used in this study with two stages sampling procedures, purposive and simple random respectively, on the population of six cacao clones planted polyclonally in single rows in December 2011 with Gliricidae and Musa spp. as shading plants. Variable observed were twelve of vegetative characters, number of flowers and fruits per tree. Data were analyzed by using correlation, sequential path analysis (SPA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results showed that plant height, diameter and number of secondary branches positively and directly affected of 29, 45, and 80% respectively on the number of flowers per tree, whereas the diameter of primary branches negatively influenced of 72%. Number of flowers and diameter of secondary branches positively and directly affected of 32 and 37% respectively on the number of fruits per tree.