Background: In the last years, the frequency of cesarean section (c-section) has risen. This study was aimed to identify several signs or symptoms of complications during pregnancy increased the risk of c-section (c-section).Methods: Data were derived from the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas) 2010. The sub-sample was married or divorced women aged 10-49 years between January 1, 2005 and August 2010 in Indonesia based on multistage stratified sampling methods. Analysis used Cox regression with constant time.Results: The c-section rate was 10.8% among 20,501 women. Urban and rural ratio of c-section rate was 2.9. Women who reported than who did not report any signs or symptoms of complications during their pregnancies had a higher risk of c-section. Women who reported high fever had 2.3-fold for c-section [adjusted relative risk (RRa) = 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69-3.34]. Moreover, those who reported compared to those who did reported bleeding had 2.1-fold increase risk of c-section (RRa = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.75-2.58). The lowest risk (96%) was among those who ever had convulsion/fainted (RRa = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.41-2.73).Conclusion: Women who reported any signs or symptoms of complications during their pregnancies had an increased risk of c-section. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:71-6).