Information and CommunicationTechnologies (ICTs) are now advancing quickly in emerging markets such as Indonesia. Between 80-95% of the Indonesian population already has access to mobile phones while Internet access, increasingly via mobile phones, is growing rapidly. In 2012, at least 20% of Indonesians had some form of Internet access—nearly half of who access Internet via mobile phones. The number of Indonesians online has doubled in the two years since 2010. As the uptake of mobile phones and mobile Internet has swiftly increased, so to has the use of social media. Facebook, in particular, has for many Indonesians become the Internet. There are nearly the same number of Facebook users as Internet users in Indonesia; and increasingly now for many new Internet users the rst interaction with the Internet is through accessing Facebook applications already loaded onto even basic (non-smart) mobile phones. At the same time, throughout emerging markets around the world in Africa, Latin America, and Asia, development practioners are increasingly focusing on how ICTs can be used for social and economic development purposes. Over the past decade, development organizations focusing on issues ranging from micro nance to disaster relief have increasingly begun to utilize mobile phones— and to a lesser extent, the Internet—to provide better access to services needed by marginalized and poor target groups.This study aims to provide an overview of the varied ways in which ICTs for development, or ICT4D, has taken root in Indonesia and to examine the opportunities and challenges that remain for ICT4D advocates as the variety and reach of ICTs continues to grow in Indonesia.