: Success or failure of education and learning in school is influenced by the ability of principals to manage every component of the school. In his capacity as the leader of the principal obligation to improve the performance of teachers, especially in implementing an effective learning process. The purpose of this study to determine: the principal's managerial ability in the preparation of the teacher's performance improvement program, the managerial ability of the principal in the implementation of the program to improve teacher performance, and barriers encountered principals in improving teacher performance in MIN Rukoh Banda Aceh. The study used descriptive qualitative approach. Data was collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. Subjects were principals and teachers. The results showed that; 1) Preparation of a teacher's performance improvement program carried out at the end of each school year that include intra and extra-curricular activities, school facilities and infrastructure improvements, preparing administrative / learning tool by teachers and others as deemed necessary, including the need for the funds necessary to support learning activities teaching; 2) In the exercise program to improve teacher performance principals apply democratic leadership style. Facing the teachers are usually the principal the principal exchange ideas with teachers so finding an effective way to improve teacher kinetrja teachers in the development of the learning process; and 3) the principal obstacle encountered in improving the performance of teachers, among others, the lack of availability of funds for teacher training outside office hours, there is still a small proportion of teachers are not active and have not been able to induce the result of upgrading to his friend. A small percentage of teachers who have not been able to in the mastery of the foundation of education, so that the impact on performance in implementing the learning.