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The First Investigation of Aac(6')-ib Enzyme in Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Indonesian Patients

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Effectiveness of Crude Oil Degrading Fungi Isolated From Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil in Siak, Riau

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Expression of Apelin is Related to Oxidative Damage in Heart Tissue of Rats During Chronic Systemic Hypoxia

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The First Investigation of Aac(6')-ib Enzyme in Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Indonesian Patients

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Effectiveness of Crude Oil Degrading Fungi Isolated From Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil in Siak, Riau

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Expression of Apelin is Related to Oxidative Damage in Heart Tissue of Rats During Chronic Systemic Hypoxia

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Elisa Method to Detect Abo Blood Group in External Secretion Fluids

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Studies On Biosurfactant Produced Using Exiguobacterium Profundum

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Enhancing Cognitive Function of Healthy Wistar Rats with Aqueous Extract of Centella Asiatica

Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb is a native herb from Asian countries such as India, China, and Indonesia. This herb has been widely used as a cure for various diseases. However, studies investigating the aqueous extract of Centella asiatica as a nootropic in healthy individuals are still very limited.Objective: This study aims to investigate the potential of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica in enhancing cognitive function of healthy male Wistar rats.Methods: Rats were randomly allocated to four treatment groups, i.e. without treatment and aqueous Centella asiatica extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. To determine enhancement of cognitive function, novel object recognition (NOR) test was conducted after the course of treatment. Acetylcholine content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: There was a significantly high preference index towards the novel object in the NOR test in groups treated with 200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of the aqueous extract compared to control. This was further confirmed by a significant increase of brain acetylcholine content in rats treated with 200 mg/kg of the extract.Conclusion: Therefore, this study confirms that the aqueous extract is effective in enhancing cognitive performance of healthy Wistar rats.
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Human Serum Folate Can Be Measured Using Folate Binding Protein Linked To Enzyme-labeled Protein Ligand Binding Assay (Elplba) AS Well AS Elisa

Background: Folate is an important substance used for purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. One measurement of folate that already establishes is using ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Folate binding protein is a protein that can bind folate, therefore it considered can be used as a tool that can replace antibody dependent ELISA method.Objectives: The aim of this research was to create a method for folate measurement in serum called Enzyme-labeled protein ligand binding assay (ELPLBA) by replacing antibody as used in ELISA method with folate binding protein (FBP) that purified from the whey of milk.Methods: The method is tested using 20 serum samples and compared to ELISA. Folate binding protein was purified from bovine's milk using ammonium sulfate up to 90% saturated, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and western blot were used to establish the protein band of FBP that has molecular weight of ~25-35 kDa. ELPLBA was arranged with stationary phase using aminohexyl-agarose, and folic acid linked on it using carbodiimide.Results: The result show there was no significant difference of folate concentration between ELPLBA (14.804 ± 2.795) and ELISA method (13.859 ± 3.638), p = 0.363.Conclusion: ELPLBA method show similarity for determination of folate in serum which was the same as standard folate measurement (ELISA).
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Changes on Oxidative Stress-related Biomarkers in Plasma and Cardiac Tissue Due to Prolonged Exposure to Normobaric Hyperoxia

Background: Hyperoxia is a state of oversupply of oxygen in tissues and organs that can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS). When antioxidants cannot balance ROS levels, oxidative stress occurs. Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) are two of the antioxidants that can be very useful to counteract ROS. Increased production of ROS subsequently results in lipids damage and generates malondialdehyde (MDA). ROS interaction with cardiac cells causes remodeling thus leads to heart failure.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find out the changes on oxidative stress-related biomarkers in plasma and cardiac tissue. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6/group). Control group was exposed to normoxia (21% O2), while each treatment group was exposed to hyperoxia (75% O2) for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Blood and heart samples were used for blood gas analysis and hematology test, also for catalase specific activity measurement, GSH level, and MDA level measurement. Results: Blood gas analysis of pO2, pCO2, and HCO3 were increased, while the O2 saturation and all hematological parameters were decreased. Plasma and cardiac tissue's catalase specific activity increased in day 1 to day 7 but declined in day 14. Cardiac tissue's GSH has the same result. Plasma GSH level increased in day 1 but decreased afterward. MDA level in plasma and cardiac tissue increased significantly since day 1.Conclusion: Hyperoxia causes oxidative stress, marked by the increase of oxidative stress-related markers, and partially compensated respiratory acidosis.
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The Effect of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia on Oxidative Stress Status and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Rat Brain

Background: High altitude can cause hypobaric hypoxia (HH), resulted from the lower barometric pressure and hence partial pressure of oxygen. Hypoxia can lead to a lot of deleterious molecular and cellular changes, such as generation of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increasing of ROS can cause oxidative stress if the antioxidant enzyme does not increase simultaneously. Oxidative damage in brain has toxic effect on cognitive functions.Objective: In this study, we investigate effect of acute intermittent HH on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat brain.Method: Wistar rats divided into 5 groups, consisting control group and four experimental groups which treated to HH. Rats were exposed to simulated HH equivalent to 35.000 feet in hypobaric chamber for 1 minute, repeated once a week.Results: Level of malondialdehyde and carbonyl in rat brain under acute HH increased at HH exposure (group I) compare to control group. These levels decreased afterward at intermittent HH exposure (group II-IV). Specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) shows increasing level at intermittent HH exposure, especially group IV was increasing of SOD level significantly. The increasing pattern of specific activity of catalase was inversely from SOD pattern, but it still has higher activity in intermittent HH compare to control group.Conclusion: Brain tissue seems to be able to perform an adequate adaptive response to hypobaric hypoxia after the training, shown by its significantly decreased MDA and carbonyl level and also increased specific activity of SOD and catalase.
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Role of Malondialdehyde (Mda) in Patients with Breast Cancer Diseases

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Cloning And Expression Of Plasmodium Falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase (Pfldh) In Escherichia Coli Bl21(de3)

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Role of Malondialdehyde (Mda) in Patients with Breast Cancer Diseases

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Cloning And Expression Of Plasmodium Falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase (Pfldh) In Escherichia Coli Bl21(de3)