Study on the transformation of pottery and ceramic fragments at Kota Lama Site, Indragiri Hulu, Riau is a study that scrutinizes the formation process of archaeological data. The formation process is identified through artifactual and contextual data resulted from an archaeological excavation at the site in 2016. The problem to be uncovered is the transformation process of archaeological data at Kota Lama site to reveal the formation of data and context found at the site. The research was carried out using the inductive chain of thought, which uses data classifications of fragments of pottery, ceramics, and coin-shaped terracotta objects called gacuk, as well as matrix, provenience, and association during the early phase. Analyses on artifactual data include quantitative, typological/morphological (form), spatial, and temporal ones. Contextual data were analyzed using morphological and their positions. Furthermore, those data were elaborated one with another to identify their type of context in order to understand their formation process that occurred at the site. In the last part, there are in general two contexts at the site, which are primary and secondary contexts.