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Theoretical Framework for Spatial Planning and Forest Management in Indonesia: Securing the Basic Rights for Adat People

Limited transparency, accountability, and participation in policy formulation as well as implementation mainly based on economic considerations, all lead to failure to attain sustainable forest management (SFM). Along with the reluctance of policy makers and lacking stakeholder capacity, less accurate data bases has also indicated a constraint in the development of appropriate action. The issues have been more complicated where they were correlated with economic imperatives, vested interest, ownership issues and the basic rights of indigenous communities living inside or adjacent the forest. Forest destruction will be no end without securing customary land and territorial rights. To cope with these issues, the concept of fair governance has been promoted as an alternative to the traditional pattern of administration. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for policy development in order to attain SFM while respecting the rights of the adat people. We show that adaptive governance, adaptive management, and participatory learning are strategic approaches in governance reform to achieve sustainable forest management securing the customary rights and traditional land use of forest dependent people.
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Effects of Drainage Ditches on Water Table Level, Soil Conditions and Tree Growth of Degraded Peatland Forests in West Kalimantan

Currently, tropical peatland forests are under considerable pressure because of increasing deforestation and degradation of forests. In Kalimantan, degradation and deforestation of peatland forests are driven primarily by industrial logging, expansion of agricultural activities through primarily conversion of forests to agricultural land and oil palm plantations. By the establishment of intensive drainage, it can induce wildfires in peatland. Unmanaged drainage ditches will alter water table levels within the site adjacent to the drainage including to surrounding peatland forest. Water table assessments were conducted before and after peatland drainage on 2007/2009 and 2012/2015 in Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan. This paper studies the effect of drainage ditches into the peatland water table. Results show the establishment of drainage ditches on this peatland landscape lowered the water table by more than 3 times from ~11.7 cm (SE = 1.5, n = 5) to ~37.3 cm (SE = 2.1 cm, n = 26). The effect on the water table was in drier months of July-August. Lowering the water table level altered worst the soil micro climate, peat temperature and peat water content. The results indicate the land use changes in peatland with the establishment of drainage affects peatland water table currently. In the area of less than 500 m from the drainage, the water level tends to lower toward the drainage feature. Therefore, recovery of peatland forests should be initiated by managing the landscape hydrology (i.e. water table) to restore the ecosystem and to protect the remaining peat swamp forest.
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Durabilty of 25 Local Specific Wood Species From Java Preserved with Ccb Against Marine Borers Attack

This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB). The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island's coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC) standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn) T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking borers consecutively are MartesiastriataLinne that belongs to the Pholadidae family ; and Teredo bartschi Clapp., Dicyathifer manni Wright., and Bankia cieba Clench. to the Terdinidae family.
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Anti Fungal Activity of Wood Extract of Aquilaria Crassna Pierre Ex Lecomte Against Agarwood-inducing Fungi, Fusarium Solani

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Annual Cumulative of Soil Carbon Change in Pinus Merkusii Plantation in Cianten, West Java

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Anti Fungal Activity of Wood Extract of Aquilaria Crassna Pierre Ex Lecomte Against Agarwood-inducing Fungi, Fusarium Solani

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