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A Note on Morphophonological Changes of Fulfulde Verb Suffixes

This paper attempts to analyse the changes of Fulfulde verb suffixes, with particular attention to Adamawa Dialect. The aim of the paper is to analyse verb suffixes to identify the nature of the changes and the conditions that trigger them. The study employed unstructured observation to collect the data and oral interview was used to validate them. Generative Phonology (GP) was adopted as the theoretical framework for data analysis in the study. The study reveals that both phonology and morphology interact in the process of changes that occur within the verb suffixes in Fulfulde. It shows that each voice has a single underlying suffix, which interacts with various tense suffixes to derive a complete verbal complex. Considering the various environments that have different suffixes with common characteristics across the three voices, the changes are found to be triggered by certain rule-based conditions.
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On the Legacy of Translation Theories From the 1950s and 1960s: A Critical Review: A Critical Review

Translation theories which bloomed in the 1950s and the 1960s have inspired numerous debates on multiple contexts of theory and praxis. With the increase of specialized journals and publishing houses of the past few decades, the professional literature has gone in so many directions –with supporters and opponents alike— that it is often hard to strike a balanced view of the contributions of these theories to current translation studies. In an attempt to fill this gap, this theoretical review article examines a corpus of scholarly publications which have taken place mainly between 2002 and 2018 about the translation theories proposed in the 1950s and 1960s. To such end, a body of works focusing on the seminal works of Vinay and Darbelnet (1958), Jakobson (1959), Nida (1964a), Catford (1965), and Nida and Taber (1969) are reviewed to infer their degree of applicability to current translation-based discussions and praxis. Findings suggest that the authors exerting the greatest influence on contemporary discussions of translation studies seem to be Vinay and Darbelnet, followed by Nida and Taber, and then by Jakobson and Catford. They also indicate that the degree to which the translation theories under question are obsolete (or not) is hard to determine with accuracy. It remains unclear whether the bulk of publications which these theoreticians inspire is the product of acceptance or rejection of the assumptions contained in their postulates.
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English in Bilingual Promotional Material of Chinese Maritime-related Exhibition Publicity: A Discourse Analysis Study

In recent years, the numbers of bilingual advertising texts have increased in China's International maritime exhibitions. Nevertheless, the shortcomings in wording and phrasing, usage of translation strategies and intercultural communication in these China English texts are not only contrary to the Plain English Movement which advocated a more concise and economical use of words and sentences in the late 20th century, but also adversely affect the Belt and Road Initiative as well as intercultural communication. In this paper, various promotional material collected from major maritime-related English exhibitions in China over the past three years will be taken as examples. This paper will adopt the discourse analysis theory to summarize the problems of redundancy, Chinglish, misuse of translation strategies and mismanagement of intercultural conflict in relevant bilingual advertisements. The paper then suggests a series of ways for improvement in order to improve the quality of China English texts as well as promote intercultural communication.
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Neg-raising, IP-internal Topic and Focus Phrases and the Structure of the Awing SOV Clause

Ever since Kayne (1994) which argues that the universal word order in a phrase is Head-Complement, many studies had proliferated in support of the LCA. Basically, at the level of the clause, many languages exhibit the SVO pattern but there are languages which display distorted word order among which the SOV. The Awing language has both orders and there are determined on the basis of the opposition positive versus negative clause. This paper examines the derivation of the Awing SOV structure and argues that this derivation involves basic movements such head and A- movements (Chomsky 1995) in addition to remnant and heavy pied-ping. It also proposes a reanalysis of the landing site of the raised remnant VP and argues (in contradiction to Nyomy (2019) who posits that the position of the raised VP is spec, AgrOP) that the raised remnant VP lands in spec, TopP (an IP-internal left periphery position as posited by Jayaseelan (2001)).
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Exploring Negation in Awing

Negation is a universal category and languages differ in many respects in the way they express the latter (see Klima 1964). In this regards, some languages express sentential negation (a subcategorization of negation) with one marker (Dutch, German, English, etc.) while others like French uses two markers. Alongside markers used to express sentential negation, other items, among which Negative Polarity Items, mark negation and tight a particular element within its domain. In this paper, I aim at providing a picture of the expression of negation in Awing (a Bantu Grassfield langue of the Ngemba Group spoken in the North West region of Cameroon). Accordingly, sentential negation is expressed with two discontinuous markers kě…pô. One fact important to the presence of this negative marker is the movement of postverbal elements to a preverbal position turning the SVO structure in non-negative clause to an SOV pattern in negative clauses. In addition, the study describes other negative elements and negation subcategories. In last, the study of negative concord reveals that Awing belongs to the group of Strict Negative Concord (SNC) languages in which n-words must co-occur with negative marker to yield negation.
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The Position of the Subjectness of the Subject-less Conventional Infinitives

The English conventional infinitive clauses have either overt or covert subjects. Previous analyses mainly used the PRO Theorem and Null-Case Approaches to show the distribution of the subjectness of the subject-less conventional infinitives. However, this paper investigated the position of the subjectness of the subject-less conventional infinitive clauses using the Minimalist Program's Movement Theory of Control and the External Token Merge. In this qualitative paper, data was extracted from the previous English Ph.D. research studies conducted by English native and non-native speakers, and analysed using successive approximation analytic tools. The results demonstrate that the control and SSR-infinitives are generated in a similar Fashion, which is why they share the type of subjectness. The base-generated PRO, which is claimed to be the subjectness of the control infinitives, is further revealed that is derived from movement. Therefore, for uniformity purposes, the subjectness of the control and SSR-infinitives is found to be a trace-copy (t) or a lexical subject positioned at the [spec-IP], [spec-TP], and [spec-vP]. The analysis suggested connectivity between the structure of the subject-less conventional infinitive clause and the position of the subjectness of the subject-less conventional infinitives as the structure of the subject-less conventional infinitives informs the distribution.