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Pemodelan Farmakokinetika Berbasis Populasi dengan R: Model Dua Kompartemen Ekstravaskuler: Population-Based Pharmacokinetics Modeling With R: Two Compartment Extravascular Model

A Tutorial of two-compartment extravascular population-based pharmacokinetics modeling was performed by differential equations and non-linear mixed effect model approach. First, three-level differential equations of two-compartment pharmacokinetics were generated. Then, covariate and non-covariate models were developed by nlmeODE and nlme packages installed in R. The best model was selected according to AIC, BIC, and LogLik value. A model without covariates model was selected as the best model. The selected model showed a goodness of fit with experimental dataset and residual plot of the model revealed that no violations of model assumtions.  In conclusion, nlme and nlmeODE is capable to generate an adequate predictive model of two-compartment population-based pharmacokinetics for extravascular route
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Efek Sinergitas Ekstrak Kulit Jeruk (Citrus Sinensis L) pada Patch Bioselulosa dalam Meningkatkan Penyembuhan Luka Bakar: Synergetic Effect Of Orange Peel Extract In Biocellulose Patch Toward Burn Wound Healing

Burns is one of the incidents that can lead to death (mortality). One of the natural products that have  potential to serve as an alternative treatment of burns is orange peel. Orange peel has a chemical composition such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E, vitamin A, and polyphenols as antioxidants that inhibit free radicals responsible in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic inflammatory. In this study, formulation was made in the form of biocellulose which is the primary metabolism product of bacteria.  The purpose of this research was to obtain the concentration of the extract of orange peel on bioselullose that have the effect of decreasing the burn wound in rats. Orange peel was extracted then fortified into biocellulose with a concentration of 3%, 6%, and 9%. After that, the wound healing was tested on animals in the form of decreasing the wound diameter.  The results showed that the concentration of extract of orange peel 3% on the fortification of biocellulose showed the good percentage of burn wound decreasing i.e. 45.52% with diameter average of 18.35 mm. This result indicates the concentration of extract of orange peel 3% is better than others.
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Produksi Protein Sel Tunggal Dari Kultur Rhizopus Oryzae Dengan Medium Limbah Cair Tahu

Tofu wastewater is the origination of tofu's production process that can degrade the quality of the environment if not handled properly. Another impact of this waste is the potential attack that could evoke the diseases such as diarrhea, skin diseases, and other illnesses for people who use the stream flow that has been polluted by this wastewater. However, the high-carbohydrate and protein of this waste may allow it to be used more as a microbial growth substrate to produce a Single-cell Protein. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum incubation time and the highest protein content of Rhizopus oryzae in the medium of tofu wastewater based on the calculation of protein content percentage and the analysis of cell dry mass. And to know the optimum pH growth with the variation of pH growth which is about 4, 5, and 6. The calculation is performed in accordance with the fermentation time at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Total protein content calculated by the Kjeldahl method. The results showed the highest protein content obtained in the incubation period to 48 hours with an average percent of protein about 0.47%, 0.47%, 0.46% and a mass of cell with an average value of 0.77%, 0, 84% and 0.91%. The optimum pH of Rhizopus oryzae growth in the medium of tofu wastewater is about 5 pH. It can be concluded that the wastewater of tofu potentially used as a growth substrate of Rhizopus oryzae.
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