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Formulation of Nanoemulsion Mouthwash Combination of Lemongrass Oil (Cymbopogon Citratus) and Kaffir Lime Oil (Citrus Hystrix) for Anticandidiasis Against Candida Albicans Atcc 10231 Image
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Formulation of Nanoemulsion Mouthwash Combination of Lemongrass Oil (Cymbopogon Citratus) and Kaffir Lime Oil (Citrus Hystrix) for Anticandidiasis Against Candida Albicans Atcc 10231

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Patient Knowledge and Rationality of Self\u002Dmedication in Three Pharmacies of Panyabungan City, Indonesia Image
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Patient Knowledge and Rationality of Self-medication in Three Pharmacies of Panyabungan City, Indonesia

Self-medication is a part of community effort to preserve their health. In practice, the self-medication can be a source of drug related problem because of lack of knowledge about drugs and their use. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and rationality of medicinal use self-medication. This study was using survey cross-sectional method. Total respondents (n=342) were involved this study of three pharmacies. Respondents were 18-60 years old and selected by consecutive sampling method. Data was collected by using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and Fisher test using Statistical Product and Servicer Solution (SPSS) version 17. The research showed that level knowledge of patients 20.5 % were good, 41.8% were medium, and 37.7% were low. Drug use self-medication was 59.4% rational and 40.6% irrational used. Based the result of Chi-square and Fisher test, educated and jobs can influence the level of knowledge, meanwhile rationality of self-medication use was not influenced by sociodemographic factor. Based on the research results obtained that majority level knowledge of patient was good classified. Irrational drug use on self medication reached 40.6%.
Formulasi Sediaan Nano Herbal Tempuyung (Sonchus Arvensis L.) Dalam Bentuk Self Nano\u002DEmulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) Image
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Formulasi Sediaan Nano Herbal Tempuyung (Sonchus Arvensis L.) Dalam Bentuk Self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS)

Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) merupakan tanaman asli Indonesia yang berhkasiat sebagai diuretik dan antioksidan. Untuk mendapatkan efek terapi yang optimal perlu inovasi untuk membuatnya menjadi sediaan nano herbal. Penelitian ini bertujuan membuat sediaan nano herbal tempuyung dalam bentuk Self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS). Kandungan zat aktif tempuyung diekstraksi dengan etanol dan berikut diuapkan pelarutnya untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kental. Ekstrak yang diperoleh distandarisasi menurut Farmakope Herbal Indonesia. Berikutnya dibuat SNEDDS tempuyung dengan menggunakan minyak Capryol-90, surfaktan tween 20 dan ko-surfaktan PEG 400. SNEDDS yang diperoleh dikarakterisasi meliputi ukuran partikel dan zeta potensial. Dari ekstraksi diperoleh ekstrak kental sebanyak 77,52 g. Hasil ini telah memenuhi syarat jika dibandingkan dengan Farmakope Herbal yang menyebutkan perolehan rendemen ekstrak kental daun tempuyung adalah tidak kurang dari 7,5%. Formulasi tempuyung dalam bentuk sediaan SNEDDS diperoleh suatu nanoemulsi yang jernih dengan ukuran partikel 16,2 ± 1,06 nm dan nilai zeta potensial -37,48±0,74 mV. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak tempuyung menghasilkan suatu nano herbal dalam bentuk sediaan SNEDDS.
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The Influence of Pharmaceutical Care Intervention on Inpatient Community Acquired Pneumonia: a Small Randomized Single Blind Study Image
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The Influence of Pharmaceutical Care Intervention on Inpatient Community Acquired Pneumonia: a Small Randomized Single Blind Study

Pneumonia, one of infectious diseases, becomes a major health care problem in Indonesia. The inappropriateness use of treatment can lead to greater unexpected health outcome and prolonged length of stay. A lot of research has proved that pharmacists, as a part of health care professionals, has important role in assuring patients to get the most optimal treatment benefit. The aim of this study is to identify the influence of pharmaceutical care intervention in reducing the length of stay of inpatients community acquired pneumonia. This experimental study involved 32 subjects with community acquired pneumonia hospitalized without any other infection between 18th August and 31st December 2010. Subjects were divided into two groups, i.e. intervention and control group, by simple random sampling technique. Intervention group received pharmaceutical care services i.e. drug related problems identification and solving based on Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification and therapy guideline. Both group received hospital standard care. The primary outcome of this study was length of stay. All subjects were followed until 31 December 2010. Most of drug related problems identified in this study were classified as treatment effectiveness (intervention group 76.19% and control group 81.82%) and treatment cost (intervention group 23.81% and control group 18.18%). Inappropriate use of antibiotic was the main cause for this drug related problems based on the pneumonia guideline. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin (28.21%) were the most inappropriate used antibiotics found in this study. The mean of length of stay between intervention (6 days) and control group (8 days) was significantly different (P<0.05). Pharmaceutical care intervention significantly improved the length of stay of inpatients community acquired pneumonia.
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