RISK FACTORS FOR MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH COVID-19: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
November 19, 2020  //  DOI: 10.26911/the7thicph-FP.01.01
Ratna Yustinawati, Anhari Achadi

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Background: SARS-CoV-2, a new strain of the coronavirus, caused a global outbreak of fatal
acute pneumonia. Globally, WHO has recorded 709,511 deaths from COVID-19, and the
number is increasing. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for mortality in COVID-
19 patients.
Subjects and Method: A systematic review was conducted by searching for articles from
ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The inclusion
criteria were open access, English-language, and full-text articles published in journals
between December 2019 and Mei 2020. The keywords were (Coronavirus Disease 2019 AND
clinical characteristics AND epidemiological characteristics AND comorbidities) OR
(COVID-19 AND clinical characteristics AND epidemiological characteristics AND comor-
bidities). A total of eight articles was reviewed to answer the research question. The data were
analyzed by PRISMA flow chart.
Results: Based on the reports from China and Korea, a total of 1,314 (100%) COVID-19
patients who died was aged ≥60 years with comorbidity, in which 845 (64%) were male
patients. Before the death of patients, the increase D-dimer level of ≥1 µg/ mL and Sequential
Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of ≥4 was reported. It indicated the occurrence of
multi-organ failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Most of the
comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases.
Conclusion: Risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 patients include age at ≥60 years, male,
and presence of comorbidity. The clinical features are D-dimer levels ≥1 µg / mL, high SOFA
score (≥4), and ARDS. Comprehensive efforts are needed to identify risk factors early and
conduct effective treatment timely to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, risk factors, mortality, comorbidity

Correspondence:
Ratna Yustinawati. Master of Public Health Program, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas
Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. Email: ratnayustinawati@gmail.com. Mobile:
+628179324304.

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