Karakterisasi dan Uji Stabilitas Digestif Nanoemulsi β-Karoten yang Dibuat dengan Metode Emulsifikasi Spontan
Β-Carotene exhibits a wide range of health benefits, but its application in food formulation is very limited because of its instability and susceptibility to degradation. The stability of β-carotene can be improved by incorporation into an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The objective of this research was to characterize β-carotene loaded nanoemulsions prepared with spontaneous emulsification method using ternary food-grade surfactants (Tween 80, Span 40, Span 80) and palm oil or VCO (virgin coconut oil) as oil phase with the surfactant-oil ratio of 4. The physicochemical stability of β-carotene loaded nanoemulsions during simulated digestions, which consist of the mouth, stomach, and intestine phases, was also evaluated using in-vitro digestion model. The results showed that β-carotene loaded nanoemulsions, prepared either using VCO or palm oil as the oil phase, had neutral pH (6.8±0.1), mean particle diameter of 129 -159 nm, showed monomodal particle size distribution with low polydispersity index (PdI) values (0.214 - 0.266), and were not significantly different in zeta potential values ([-6,59]–[-8,9]). The β-carotene loaded nanoemulsions with VCO as the oil phase had a smaller mean particle diameter than that of palm oil. The physical stability of the β-carotene loaded nanoemulsions against digestive simulation in the mouth, stomach or intestine phases was not influenced by the oil phase type. Both nanoemulsions were stable against simulated digestion in the mouth and stomach phases. After passing through the intestinal phase, the mean particle diameter increased and the particle size distribution changed from monomodal to bimodal. The β-carotene retention after passing through the mouth, stomach and intestinal phases of the β-carotene loaded nanoemulsion prepared using VCO were not significantly different from the palm oil.