Penalaran Siswa dalam Menyampaikan Argumen Lisan Ditinjau dari Pengorganisasian Tuturan di Kelas IX SMP Negeri 1 Banjar
2014
Made Samitha Putra, M. Pd Prof I. Made Sutama, M. Hum Prof I. Nengah Suandi

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan (1) penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari pola organisasi tuturan, (2) penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari teknik pengembangan tuturan, dan (3) penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari pemilihan materi bahasa di kelas IX SMP Negeri 1 Banjar. Dalam mencapai tujuan ini, peneliti menggunakan rancangan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa di kelas IX SMP Negeri 1 Banjar. Secara umum objek penelitian ini adalah penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari pengorganisasian tuturan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode observasi. Data yang diperoleh dianalis secara deskriptif kualitatif yang meliputi tiga tahapan yaitu, (1) reduksi data, (2) penyajian data, dan (3) penarikan simpulan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa : (1) Penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari pola organisasi tuturan yang muncul adalah pola sebab-akibat, pola kronologis, pola spasial, pola pemecahan masalah, dan pola topikal. (2) Penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari teknik pengembangan tuturan yang muncul adalah teknik sebab-akibat, teknik narasi, teknik urutan spasial, teknik kronologis, teknik deduktif, teknik klimaks, teknik induktif, dan teknik analogi. (3) Penalaran siswa dalam menyampaikan argumen lisan ditinjau dari pemilihan materi bahasa yang muncul adalah pemilihan kata yang jelas dan sederhana, majas personifikasi, gaya bahasa pleonasme, kata yang berona, kata spesifik, gaya bahasa sarkasme, gaya bahasa metafora, gaya bahasa Perumpamaan, dan gaya bahasa hiperbola.Kata Kunci : penalaran, argumen lisan This research aimed at describing: (1) student's reasoning in oral argument from talk organization pattern point of view, (2) student's reasoning in oral argument from talk development technique point of view, and (3) student's reasoning in oral argument from language materials point of view in the ninth grade of SMP Negeri 1 Banjar.
In achieving this objective, the researcher used qualitative description research design. The subjects of this research are the ninth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Banjar. In general, the object of this research is student's logical reasoning in oral arguing from talk organization point of view. The researcher collected the data using observation method. The collected data were analyzed by using qualitative description technique with three steps, namely; (1) reducing data, (2) presenting data, and (3) concluding.
The findings of this research show: (1) student's reasoning in oral argument from talk organization pattern point of view that appear was a cause effect patterns, chronological patterns, spatial patterns, problem solving patterns, and topical patterns. (2) student's reasoning in oral argument from talk development technique point of view that appear was techniques causal, narrative technique, spatial sequence technique, chronological technique, deductive technique, climax technique, inductive technique, and analogy technique. (3) Student's reasoning in oral argument from language materials point of view that appear was the selection of the words that is clear and simple, personification figure of speech, redundancy stylistic, hue word, specific word, sarcasm stylistic, metaphor stylistic, parable stylistic, and hyperbole stylistic.
Based on the result of this research, it's suggested to the students to practice of oral argument by utilizing the talk organization pattern in order to the speech became more interesting and effective. Besides that, by determine the talk organization pattern, talk development technique, and language materials, the students can more be easier to organize main idea, so it will produce a good and interesting argument.
keyword : reasoning, oral argument

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