Background: Maternal complications are the risk of maternal death. Unsafe childbirth behavior is still a major challenge in Indonesia that is influenced by social, economic and cultural factors. Objective: The study aimed to identify socio-economic and cultural influences on the behavior of childbirth in rural areas with low and high maternal mortality Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas with low and high maternal mortality. The sample of the study were nursing mothers. The sample size of each research area is 120, bringing the total to 240 samples. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires and interview guidelines. Data analysis was done descriptively and analytically with multiple regression test. Results: In the low maternal mortality areas, almost all (99.2%) of the samples performed safe deliveries. Safe delivery was influenced by the equality of the mother's social status with her husband, social support for healthy behaviors, and high maternal social value for the family. In the high maternal mortality areas, the majority (66.6%) of the samples performed unsafe childbirth. Unsafe childbirth behavior was influenced by strong social support to unhealthy behavior and low husband's financial support. Conclusion: Safe childbirth behavior in low maternal mortality area was influenced by mother's social status, social support to healthy behavior, and mother's social value. Unsafe childbirth behavior in high maternal mortality areas was influenced by social support for unhealthy behaviors and financial support.