: Women's Testimony in View of ‘Ulamâ' of Tafsîr. Within Islamic law, the testimony of women is controversial. There are those who distinguish between female witnesses and males in matters such as debts, but there also those who equate the two. The difference appears to have resulted from the difference in points of view. Actually when differentiated between al-ishhâd (out of court testimony) and al-shahâdah (testimony) as evidence brought before a judge in court, does not need to distinguish between the testimonies of women and men. Shahâdah in court is determined by the judges, as drawn out by the Prophet and accepting the testimony of a woman in the case of rape. Similarly, the Prophet accepted the testimony of a woman in the case of ‘Uqbah ibn al-Harîth who married Umm Yahyâ bint Abî Lahab.