Genetic improvement on two new cotton varieties, Kanesia 8 and Kanesia 9The main objective of cotton breeding in Indonesia is to improve productivity and fiber quality which is aimed to increase farmers' income and to make beter yam and textile quality that has to compete in International market Six crosses were made between two Indian varieties, LRA 5166 and SRT-1 with two USA vaieties, Deltapine 55 and Deltapinc Acala 90 and one Australian variety, Siokra. Individual plants, lines and individual within lines were selected on F2-F5 generations based on boll- counts, leaf-damage by jassids and fiber traits, those were conducted under rainfed and insecticide-ree condition; twelve promising lines were produced from this process. A total of 13 trials were carried out to observe performance of these new lines during 1993 to 2001; those were located in East Java and South Sulawesi using the standardized experimental techniques. By these procedures make it possible to identify several breeding lines showing simultaneous improvement in yield and fiber quality. Several tests were also made to evaluate response of those lines under intercropping with soybean and mungbean, which were located in East Java. Two breeding lines, 88003/16/2 and 92016/6 (those have been released as Kanesia 8 and Kanesia 9 in 2003), showed higher productivity and fiber quality. In average, these new vaieties produced 1.85 and 1.91 ton ha'1 seed cotton respectively or 8 to 12% higher than those on Kanesia 7, the previously released vaiety. Lint turn-out was 35.2% fiber-strength was varied from 22.6 to 24.7 gram tex'1 , fiber lengths ranged from 29.2 to 30.3 mm with lower micronaire-valucs indicating better fiber-ineness. All of those improvements represented a trend toward a higher quality iber. Kanesia 8 and Kanesia 9 also showed a slight improvement in resistance to jasssids and insect pest-complex. Kanesia 8 and Kanesia 9 performed lower competitive ability under intercropping with soybean in comparison with Kanesia 7. Under intercropping with mungbean Kanesia 8 also suffered high yield loss, wherein Kanesia 9 showed good tolerance to mungbean. The release of Kanesia 8 and Kanesia 9 is expected to give a broader choice for the cotton growers and spinning-mills to match with their inal product.