. Monitoring of extreme climate and its impacts on agriculture in Indonesia need a lot of data as well as wide and intensive observation network. Remote sensing technology could provide better solution for a broader and rapid monitoring system of extreme climate and its impacts. This paper describes the applications of remote sensing technology on monitoring extreme weather and climate and their impacts on droughts and floods especially in agricultural sector, based on previous research results conducted in Indonesia and several other countries. Some models which have been developed and applied in Indonesia used low and medium resolution data single and combined techniques. Some derived variables were reviewed such as cloud temperature, rainfall rate, land surface temperature, vegetation index and its derivatives, soil moisture index and its derivatives could represent extreme weather and climate condition, as well as land susceptibility to droughts and floods in Java and Bali islands. The accuracy of models using GMS, MTSAT, TRMM, QMorph, MODIS, AVHRR, Landsat-7, SPOT-4, and ALOS to date is generally sufficient at national to district levels with averaged determinant coefficients range between 60% and 80%. However, the accuracy of resulted and applied models still need to be enhanced. Remote sensing-based monitoring system has a good prospect to be continuously implemented in the future using newer data such as Himawari-8, NPP-VIIRS, Landsat-8, SPOT-6, and SPOT-7.