The composition of the soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affected the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the age increasing of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of soil fauna and factors of soil habitat which differentiate among the cocoa plantations. Sampling of soil, roots and soil fauna was conducted from cocoa plantation aged 4, 5, 7, 10, and 16years. Difference in composition of the soil fauna community between ages of the cocoa plantation is significant. Profile of soil habitats was differ significantly between the cocoa plantations, except 5 and 7 years aged. A group of soil fauna has relatively limited in its movement, and sensitively to changes in temperature, soil acidity, and the availability of food and nitrogen are taxa differentiating between soil fauna communities. Soil physic-chemical conditions that affect metabolic activity, movement, and the availability of food for soil fauna is a distinguishing factor of the characteristics of the soil habitat between different ages of smallholder cocoa plantations.Keywords: Abundance, arthropod, composition, nematodes [How to Cite: Kilowasid LMH, TS Syamsudin, F X Susilo, E Sulistyawati and H Syaf. 2013. Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe. J Trop Soils 18 (2): 149-159. Doi: 10.5400/jts.2013.18.2.149][Permalink/DOI: www.dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2013.18.2.149]REFERENCESAdejuyigbe CO, G Tian and GO Adeoye.1999. Soil microarthropod populations under natural and planted fallows in Southwestern Nigeria. 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