The Influence of the Former Paddy Soil Cultivation on the Growth and Yield of Soybean. The study aimed to determine the effect of soil tillage on growth and yield of soybean after rice in rainfed lowland. The experiment was conducted in rainfed soil after harvesting of rice in Mojosari Experimental Farm, East Java during late dry season 2012. The soil type is Regosol with 87 m above sea level. The factorial randomized experimental design with two factors and three replications was used. The first factor consists of four varieties, namely: (1) Anjasmoro, (2) Argomulyo, (3) Burangrang, and (4) Kaba. The second factor consisted of three soil preparation (tillage), namely: (1) No tillage, (2) Soil tillage in row of the plant, (3) Soil tillage properly. Plot size was 5 m x 3 m with plant spacing of 40 cm between rows and 15 cm within row with two plant per hill. The fertilizer of Ponska (300 kg/ha) were applied along the rows at the planting time. The analysis of variances showed that most of the soybean characters were not affected by soil tillage system x cultivar interaction, except number of branches at 30 and 72 days after planting and number of seed per plant. Since all characters observed were not affected by soil tillage system, the zero tillage system for growing soybean after rice could be suggested. Seven of eleven characters observed were affected by cultivars, including yield and seed weight. Since both cultivars, namely Anjasmoro and Kaba gave the higher yield (2.6 t/ha) compared to the others, therefore, those cultivars were suggested to the farmers in the areas.