Social Economic of Homeyard Based on Rural and Urban Areas in Three Provinces of Indonesia. Homeyard in urban and rural areas is a pivotal source of food, family nutrition and household economics. This study aims to discuss the existence of homeyard in urban and rural areas from the socio-economic perspective. The research was conducted in three provinces: South Kalimantan, Central Java and South Sumatra during September and October 2012. The research used cluster-based involving 50 respondents that represent people in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through interviews including: the respondents' characteristics, the choice of plants, the plant arrangement, the type of work and tenure. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis (cross tabulations), a comparative analysis of median values (t test), χ2 analysis (chi-square) and correlation analysis. The results showed that there are differences in the characteristics of the homeyard management aspects of demographic, social, cultural, economic and natural resources in both areas. It can be concluded that, the existence of the management of the homeyard in urban and rural areas plays a strategic role as a source of household economy, even though in a different management, especially in the diversity of cultivated plants and pattern of arable land. As an implication, homeyards need to be considered as a potential economic and productive resource in agricultural development policy.