The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the West Sumatra is still high and therefore it should be vigilantly monitored. Data from Provincial Health Office of West Sumatra (2014) revealed that IMR in 2013 was about of 27/1000 live births. The purpose of this study is to describe socio-cultural problems to decrease the IMR in the West Sumatra. The research was carried out in 10 districts/cities in the West Sumatra Province using a qualitative approach. Primary data collection was done through focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and observations. While secondary data was obtained through a literature review. The results showed that there were socio-cultural problems encountered that hindered the reduction of the infant mortality rate. These including the lack of knowledge and community understanding towards mother and child health, and the existence of practice and common beliefs that the examination of pregnancy and child birth in the home with the help of traditional birth attendants. There was also beliefs regarding tradional healing of sick children in rural community.