Acute respiratory infection primarily cough and rapid breathing is a common cause of morbidity and death among children under five years of age. According to The Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health, incidence of acute respiratory infection is 10%. The National Household Health Survey indicated that 25.2% of infant deaths were caused by this disease. The objective of this analysis was to identify the determinant factors related to the occurence of cough with rapid breathing among children under five years of age. Data were taken from Indonesia Demographic Health Survey 1994. The dependent variable was children of under five years of age who were suffering from cough with rapid breathing and as independent variables were mothers education and activities, overcrowding of household occupants, houses wall materials, roof materials and use of kerosene stove. The result showed that among social factors, mothers education and participation in social organization were significantly associated with the morbidity of cough with rapid breathing . The risk of having cough with rapid breathing was 0.7 less likely to occur among children born to mothers who participated in the social organization activities (OR=0.7) compared to mothers who did not participate in those activities. While, among environmental factors: overcrowding of household occupant, housess wall material, use of kerosene stove were significantly associated with the occurance of cough with rapid breathing among children under 5 years of age. The overall analysis of environmental and social factors analysis showed that the risk of children whose mothers have low education and do not participate in social organization activity was 2 times higher than those born to mothers with higher education and participation in social organization activities. The risk of children who lived in houses with floor space less than 10 sq.m/capita and use kerosene stove was 1.7 times higher than children who lived in houses with larger floor space and use other than kerosene stove.