Studies on the ecology of Anopheles aconitus, An.sundaicus, An. balabacensis and An. punctulatus group were carried out in the year of 1975-1990. The results were found useful to support malaria control programme. Studies on other species of malaria vectors revealed limitted results. Based on the results of these studies, simple methods of vector control which could be done through community participation, could be formulated. Therefore, in malarious areas in Java and Bali where An. aconitus and An. sundaicus are the main vectors, residual house sprayings could be minimized or even stopped. On the other hand health education to motivate community participation on vector control and survaillance should be intensified by the programme, to keep the malaria transmission under control. Study on the ecology of An. balabacensis was carried out only in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan. The result showed that the effectivity of malaria transmission by An. balabacensis was very high. Residual sprayings by DDT were still effective to control malaria incidence in this area. Studies on the ecology of An. punctulatus groups were done by NAMRU-2 but the results will not be discussed here. Studies on the ecology of other species of malaria vector were still needed, especially in the Easten part of Indonesia and at the Borders betwen Indonesia and neighboring countries.