Analisis Spasial Distribusi Kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue (Dbd) Kota Bontang, Provinsi Kalimantan Timur

Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto • Widiarti, Widiarti • Boewono, Damar Tri
Journal article Indonesian Bulletin of Health Research • September 2012 Indonesia

Abstract

Vector control programs of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) have been conducted by Bontang Health Office, unfortunately DHF cases were still occurred in the years. Comprehensive research was conducted to determine the distribution of DHF cases using spatial analysis, in relation to positive larvae of breeding habitat distributions. The study was done in Belimbing village, West Bontang Subdistrict and Gunung Elai village, Nort Bontang Subdistrict. The aim of the study was to determine the specific vector control strategy based on the breeding habitats, larvae free index (LFI), insecticide susceptible status of dengue vector Ae. aegypti and cases distribution (GIS mapping and distance index analyses). The study revealed that the average LFI in the study areas were 31.9-67.5% and lower the national standar of 95%. Dengue vector in the study areas were found to be resistant to both insecticides. The average mortality of Malathion was 15.0-65% and 5.0-7.50% on Lambdacyhalothrin. The application dosage of Temefos were effective against the larvae. Dengue cases distribution in the study areas were found in clusters/gregorious. Distance index analysis revealed that 35.62% of dengue cases in Bontang city were distributed in the radius of 360 meters. This result reflected that the transmission was dominant due to human mobility. The health community empowerment is needed to encourage the people to participate on the vector control program especially regular household sanitation or clean-up campaigns ( to dry of, cover and bury /the vector habitats cleaning) and larvicide applications in an effort to sustain the vector control programs. Key Words: DHF, Spatial distribution, Cases Distance Index, Bontang City Abstrak. Berbagai program pengendalian nyamuk vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD) telah dilakukan oleh Dinas Kesehatan Kota Bontang, beberapa tahun sebelum 2008. Walaupun demikian, kasus DBD masih dijumpai setiap tahun. Penelitian komprehensif telah dilakukan pada tahun 2008 sebagai usaha untuk mengetahui distribusi dan pemetaan kasus digunakan geographical information system (GIS), sehubungan dengan breeding habitat positip jentik nyamuk vektor. Penelitian dilakukan di dua wilayah yaitu Kelurahan Belimbing (Kecamatan Bontang Barat) dan Kelurahan Gunung Elai (Kecamatan Bontang Utara). Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menentukan strategi spesifik pengendalian DBD berdasarkan breeding habitat positip jentik nyamuk vektor, angka bebas jentik (ABJ), status kerentanan nyamuk vektor terhadap insektisida dan distribusi dan pemetaan kasus dengan menggunakan sistem informasi geografi (SIG) dan distance index analyses (analisis indek jarak). Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa rerata ABJ daerah penelitian adalah 31,90-67,50% (standar nasional 95,00%), nyamuk vektor DBD Ae. aegypti diketahui sudah resisten terhadap insektisida Malation and Lambdacyhalotrin, kematian kurang dari 70,00%. Insektisida temefos (konsentrasi aplikasi 1g/10 liter air) masih efektif terhadap jentik nyamuk vektor. Distribusi kasus DBD ditemukan menggerombol/berkelompok (clusters/gregorious) dan analisis indek jarak diketahui bahwa hanya 35,62% dari jumlah kasus, tersebar pada radius 360 meter. Kenyataan tersebut merefleksikan bahwa penularan DBD pada umumnya disebabkan oleh mobilitas manusia.. Pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam bidang kesehatan sangat diperlukan guna memberikan semangat kepada penduduk untuk berpartisipasi terhadap program pengendalian vektor DBD khususnya pemberantasan sarang nyamuk vektor (PSN), sebagai usaha pelestarian. Kata Kunci: DBD, Distribusi spasial, Indek Jarak Kasus, Kota Bontang.

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Journal

Indonesian Bulletin of Health Research

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Indonesian Bulletin of Health Research) is a quarterly, open access... see more