Gambaran Epidemiologi Leptospirosis di Kecamatan Jepara, Kabupaten Jepara, Provinsi Jawa Tengah

Astuti, Novia Tri • Raharjo, Jarohman • Ikawati, Bina
Journal article Indonesian Bulletin of Health Research • March 2013 Indonesia

Abstract

Background: In 2011 two cases of leptospirosis were found in two villages of Jepara Subdistrict, Jepara District, Central Java. The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiology of leptospirosis in that area, covering : success rate of rat trapping, positivity of leptospirosis in rat species, environment condition and prediction of transmission. Methods: Observational study with cross sectional design was done in Panggang and Saripan Village, Jepara Sub district, Jepara district on July 2011. As much 250 traps had been used at each location (area of two village as location of leptospirosis cases) two traps were set indoor and two traps were set outdoor during 3 days. Environment observation and location coordinates were determined by using Global Positioning System (GPS). Interviews with community around leptospirosis cases were also conducted. Rats had been trapped, identified, counted trap success, and serra were taken from blood of the rat cardiac. Identification of Leptospira strain were conducted by using Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data analyzed descriptively in table and picture. Results: Trap success was high, 8,4% with trap success indoor 15,83% and outdoor 4,9%, rat species which had been found were Rattus tanezumi, Suncus murinus dan R. norvegicus, PCR examination showed negative Leptospira sp. Examined water samples showed one sample positive of Leptospira sp. Environment condition supported for leptospirosis transmission. The location of the survey was about 1 km from the river. Conclusion: Leptospirosis transmission in Jepara must cautious with one positive sample of water with Leptospira and high trap success Keywords: seroprevalence, leptospirosis, Jepara Abstrak Latar Belakang: Dalam tahun 2011 ditemukan adanya leptospirosis yang ditemukan pada dua Desa/Kelurahan di Kecamatan Jepara. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui epidemiologi leptospirosis di wilayah tersebut, meliputi : keberhasilan penangkapan tikus, species tikus yang positif leptospira, kondisi lingkungan dan kemungkinan penularan. Metode: Jenis penelitian adalah observasi dengan desain survei potong lintang. Penangkapan tikus dilakukan pada satu lokasi ditemukannya kasus leptospirosis di Kecamatan Jepara, Kabupaten Jepara, pada bulan Juli 2011. Sebanyak 250 perangkap dipasang, di dalam rumah 2 perangkap dan di luar rumah 2 perangkap, serta lahan di sekitar lingkungan tersebut selama 3 malam berturut-turut. Wawancara dilakukan pada penduduk di sekitar penderita leptospirosis, pengukuran dan pengamatan faktor lingkungan, serta pengambilan titik GPS (Global Positioning System). Tikus yang tertangkap diidentifikasi, dihitung kepadatannya dan diambil darahnya untuk diperiksa keberadaan bakteri leptospira secara PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction), bersama dengan data wawancara dan hasil pengamatan lingkungan dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil: Keberhasilan penangkapan tinggi, secara umum sebesar 8,4% dengan keberhasilan penangkapan di dalam rumah 15,83% dan di luar rumah 4,9% Species tikus yang ditemukan Rattus tanezumi, Suncus murinus dan R. norvegicus, tidak ditemukan bakteri Leptospira pada sampel darah tikus yang diperiksa. Pada sampel air ditemukan positif Leptospira sp pada bak mandi. Kondisi lingkungan mendukung untuk penularan leptospirosis. Lokasi berjarak kurang dari 1 km dari sungai. Kesimpulan: Leptospirosis di Kabupaten Jepara patut diwaspadai penularannya dengan ditemukannya air yang positif Leptospira sp dan trap success tikus yang tinggi. Kata kunci: epidemiologi, leptospirosis, Jepara

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Indonesian Bulletin of Health Research

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Indonesian Bulletin of Health Research) is a quarterly, open access... see more