Radiasi di Sekitar Menara Base Transceiver Station di Bandung dan Jakarta

Hananto, Miko • Athena, Athena
Journal article Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan • 2013 Indonesia

Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian Pengaruh Medan Elektromagnetik Terhadap Kesehatan Masyarakat Di Sekitar Menara Pemancar Telepon Seluler (BTS) di Jakarta dan Bandung bertujuan untuk mengetahui besar pajanan medan elektromagnetik yang berasal dari menara telepon seluler (BTS) dan kondisi kesehatan (kecemasan) ma syarakat yang bermukim di sekitar BTS. Disain penelitian adalah cross-sectional dengan jumlah sampel di masing-masing lokasi adalah 10 (7 BTS dengan sistem GSM dan 3 BTS dengan sistem CDMA) yang dipilih secara purposif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara pengukuran rapat daya di 16 titik di sekeliling BTS (setiap 22,5o sudut penjuru angin) pada jarak 100 meter. Berdasarkan hasil pengukuran tersebut, p ada arah dengan rapat daya paling besar, pengukuran dilanjutkan pada pada jarak 50, 150, 200, 250, dan 300 meter. Alat ukur yang digunakan adalah Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Strength Meters SPECTRAN® HF-2025E. Data hasil pengukuran medan elektromagnetik akan dipetakan berdasarkan titik pengukuran di masing-masing BTS, dan dibandingkan dengan peraturan yang ada. Hasil: Pada jarak 100 meter dari BTS, rapat daya frekuensi 900 MHz berkisar antara tidak terdeteksi sampai 396 W/cm2 dengan modus 2 W/cm2. Pada frekuensi 1800 MHz berkisar antara tidak terdeteksi sampai 282 W/cm2 dengan modus 0,4 W/cm2 dan pada frekuensi 2200 MHz antara tidak terdeteksi sampai 140 W/Cm2dengan modus 13 W/cm2. Berdasarkan jarak pengukuran, rapat daya pada frekuensi 900 MHz paling tinggi terukur pada jarak 250 meter dari BTS, sebesar 700 W/cm2; frekuensi 1800 MHz , paling tinggi 540 W/cm2 terukur pada jarak 100 meter; pada frekuensi 2200 MHz paling tinggi 570 W/cm2 terukur pada jarak 250 meter. Kesimpulan: Secara umum radiasi di sekitar BTS telah melampaui masih di bawah nilai yang direkomendasikan oleh WHO dan ITU maupun Keputusan Ditjen Parpostel tahun 2007, tetapi di beberapa titik pengukuran telah melampaui nilai yang direkomendasikan oleh peraturan tersebut. Mengingat efek yang ditimbulkan oleh pajanan radiasi ini bersifat kronis, maka perlu adanya pemantauan besaran radiasi maupun kondisi kesehatan masyarakat di sekitar BTS.Kata Kunci: Menara telepon seluler, radiasi, medan elektromagnetikAbstractResearch of Health Effect of Electromagnetic Fields to People around the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) in Jakarta and Bandung. The aim of the research is to study the health effects of BTS existence and BTS radiation exposure to the community who lives near the stations. The research design was cross-sectional with the number of samples in each location was 10 (7 BTSs with GSM system and 3 BTSs with CDMA system). The samples were chosen purposively. Data collection was performed by measuring the power density in 16 points with a radius of 100 meters around the BTS (every 22,5o angle). According to these measurement results, a further measurement was performed for every 50, 150,200, and 300 meters in the direction where the largest power density was found. The measuring tool used was Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Strength Meters SPECTRAN® HF-2025E. Afterwards, electromagnetic field measurement data was mapped based on the measurement points in each BTS and compared with the existingregulations. Result: At a distance of 100 meters from BTS, the power density of 900 MHz wave was ranged from undetected to 396 W/cm2 with a modus value of 2 W/cm2. For the 1800 MHz wave, the power density was ranged from undetected to 282 W/cm2 with a modus value of 0,4 W/cm2. Meanwhile, the 2200 MHz wave was found to beranged from undetected to 140 W/cm2 with a modus value of 13 W/cm2. Based on the measurement distance, the highest power density of 900 MHz wave was measured at around 700 W/cm2 in 250 meters radius from BTS. Conclusion: It can be concluded that generally, the radiation around BTS was still below the threshold recommended by WHO and ITU, as well as Decree of Director General of Resources and Devices of Post and Informatics year 2007; but there were some points which had radiation value far above the threshold. Considering the effects of exposure to radiation which are chronic, it is necessary to monitor the magnitude of both the radiation and the health of community living near BTS.Keywords: Base Transceiver Station, radiation, electromagnetic field

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Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (Health Research and Development Media) is an open ac... see more