Pengaruh Proses Pemasakan terhadap Komposisi Zat Gizi Bahan Pangan Sumber Protein

Lamid, Astuti • Almasyhuri, Almasyhuri • Sundari, Dian

Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian pengaruh proses pemasakan terhadap komposisi zat gizi beberapa bahan pangan sumber protein baik hewani maupun nabati. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk melihat apakah proses pemasakan yaitu perebusan dan penggorengan mempengaruhi kandungan zat gizi bahan pangan tersebut. Bahan pangan yang akan dijadikan sampel adalah daging ayam segar, ikan kembung segar, tempe dan tahu.yang dibeli dari pasar tradisional di Kota Bogor. Analisis yang dilakukan meliputi analisis kadar air, kadar abu, kadar protein dan kadar lemak. Dari ke-4 macam bahan pangan yang dicoba, dibagi menjadi 3 bentuk perlakuan yaitu bentuk segar, direbus dan digoreng sehingga jumlah sampel yang dianalisis sebanyak 12 sampel. Metode yang digunakan adalah: analisis kadar air menggunakan metode oven (Thermogravimetri), kadar abu menggunakan metode tanur, kadar protein dengan metode Kjeldahl dan kadar lemak dengan metode Soxhlet. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa proses pemasakan bahan pangan dengan menggunakan panas menyebabkan penurunan kadar zat gizi bahan pangan tersebut dibandingkan bahan mentahnya. Tinggi atau rendahnya penurunan kandungan gizi suatu bahan pangan akibat pemasakan tergantung dari jenis bahan pangan, suhu yang digunakan dan lamanya proses pemasakan. Proses menggoreng menyebabkan penurunan kandungan gizi yang sangat signifikan karena penggorengan menggunakan suhu yang tinggi sehingga zat gizi seperti protein mengalami kerusakan. Sedangkan proses perebusan menyebabkan berkurangnya kandungan zat gizi karena banyak zat gizi terlarut dalam air rebusan. Walaupun demikian hal terpenting dalam pengolahan bahan pangan agar bahan pangan bernilai gizi tinggi dan aman dikonsumsi.Kata Kunci : bahan pangan, pengolahan, pemasakan, komposisi gizi AbstractHas conducted research on the effect of the cooking process nutrient composition few food sources of protein, both animal and vegetable. The aim of this study was to see whether the cooking process is boiling and frying influence the nutrient content of foodstuffs. Foodstuffs to be sampled are fresh chicken meat, fresh mackerel, Tempe and Tofu were purchased from traditional markets in Bogor. Analysis is conducted analysis of water content, ash content, protein content and fat content. Of the four kinds offoodstuffs were tested, divided into three forms of treatment that is the form of fresh, boiled and fried so that the number of samples analyzed a total of 12 samples. The method used is: analysis of water content using the oven method (Thermogravimetri), ash content using the furnace method, protein content by Kjeldahl method and the fat content by Soxhlet method. The analysis showed the cooking process of food causes a decrease in the levels of nutrients in food than the raw material. High or low nutrient levels decrease due to cooking depending on the type of food, the temperature and the longer the cooking process. Frying process causes a decrease in nutrient content were highly significant because the frying uses high temperatures so that nutrients such as protein damage. While the boiling process leads to reduced nutrient content because many nutrients dissolved in boiling water. However the most important thing in food processing so that food of high nutritional value and safe for consumption.Keywords : food, processing, cooking, nutritional composition

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Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (Health Research and Development Media) is an open ac... see more