This research was aimed at analyzing the enhancement of students' abilities in problem solving and mathematical communication through realistic mathematics education instruction, and at describing their attitude and activities during that instruction. The population was all state junior high school students in Garut region, while randomly selected sample, was the seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Cilawu. The experimental design was pre-post control group design. Four classes were participated in this study. Two classes (grade VII A and VII C) were assigned as experimental groups who participated in instruction with realistic mathematics education, and the other two classes (grade VII B and VII D) as control group who participated in the direct instruction. Data was collected through test, questionnaire, and observation. The analysis of gain score showed that the enhancement of students' abilities on problem solving and mathematical communication who participated in instruction with realistic mathematics education was better than those who participated in the direct instruction. Descriptive analysis of data from questionnaire and observation showed that realistic mathematics education instruction enabled students to be active and to have positive attitudes toward mathematics.