This research was developed using the approach of social history that refers to events or socialreligious reality in society and aims to clarify the role of the Assembly of the Ulama Indonesia (MUI) of Surakarta in responding to the change or the development of the social-religious life in community. The results of this research demonstrates that (1) the Assembly of Indonesia of Surakarta Scholars played full, in the Islamic community especially. For example, they provide advice, counsel and fatwa guidance asked or not. (2) in the social reality, they respond to the social conflict. The responses enacted by the scholars are presented into three terms, among others; attempting to be a pioneer of the peace at the time of the riots, giving social advocacy in form of action and being a mediator when conflicts arose disagreements.