A systematic literature review was undertaken to analyze the effects of climate change concerning the forests in the Mediterranean region as it is a climate and a global hot spot of biological diversity and the richest biodiversity region in Europe. Climate change threatens several eco-systems (e.g. forests) with ecological and socioeconomic importance. It is noteworthy that all warming scenarios in the Mediterranean predict an increase of drought and heat events, and a reduction in precipitation within the next hundred years in the Mediterranean basin with im-portant consequences in local vegetation communities. Forests can therefore be used as a tool in developing so-lutions to the problem of climate change. Nowadays, is considered necessary firstly to continue monitoring and research concerning climate change patterns and impacts on regional scales and secondly to implement manage-ment strategies in order to preserve Mediterranean habi-tats.