A Review Study on Fluoride Toxicity in Water and Fishes: Current Status, Toxicology and Remedial Measures

Rajinder Kaur • Amita Saxena • Munish Batra

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(English, 11 pages)


Fluoride is widely distributed in nature in many forms and its associated compounds have been used extensively but its limit in water is exceeding the permissible level. Excess of fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) in drinking water is harmful to the health. Fluoride toxicity is increasingly becoming a matter of great concern as many countries in the world have been declared as endemic for fluoride. This makes it imperative for scientists to focus on the precise toxic effects of fluoride on various soft tissues. Fluoride is toxic to all the system and causes oxidative stress in various tissues. When fluoride is ingested, approximately 93% is absorbed into the bloodstream. Contamination of drinking water due to fluoride is a severe health hazard problem. A good part of the material is excreted but the rest is deposited in the bones and teeth and is capable of causing a crippling skeletal fluorosis, non-skeletal fluorosis and dental fluorosis. There are various treatment technologies for removing fluoride from groundwater but these methods are very expensive. Besides using the water treatment techniques, various plants are having therapeutic properties to reduce the fluoride toxicity which is a cost effective to cure the fluoride induced toxicity.




International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology

The International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) is an internation... see more