The production of vegetables is an agricultural activity of great economic importance for the generation of income for the producers, and an indispensable partner in proposals of public policies that aim at the sustainable and human development. In this way, organic production systems are used that use agroecological techniques that contribute to soil fertility and provide healthy food production, such as green manuring using nitrogen-fixing species. Therefore, the present article intends to analyze works on the nitrogen utilization of the green manure, through a review of data collected in the specialized scientific literature. For this, the study was based on an exploratory bibliographical review to survey the concept of nitrogen utilization, to provide the basis for understanding the use of green manuring in the cultivation of vegetables, aiming at food safety and environmental sustainability. Thus, the main data collected show the contributions of green manure in the cultivation of vegetables, pointing out that there are possibilities for the use of sustainable systems, evidencing the effects of incorporation of biomass from nitrogen fixing species on soil fertility and vegetable yield grown organically. Thus, the use of green manures can be an alternative to reduce the application of the amount of synthetic mineral fertilizers and to return nutrients withdrawn from the soil. Despite this, it is still a challenge to implement and maintain this practice, since the conventional system is still widely used by many producers.