Since last two three decades due to industrialization, globalization there is tremendous change in human life that means to fulfil the need various industries are flourishing. We are facing the problem of environmental pollution and also facing hazards to biodiversity. So it becomes our duties to remediate the environment by using scientific tool like bioremediation. This is emerging as an effective innovative technology for treatment of a wide variety of contaminants. Bioremediation involves various approaches like phytoremediation (plants) and rhizoremediation (plant and microbe interaction). Bioremediation is most effective technology for treatment of soil and water which are mostly contaminated by human activities. It is an economical process that means operation cost is less. In current review contamination of water and soil by nitro-aromatic compounds and the role of bacteria and fungi and their enzyme activity to enhance bioremediation process is studied by literature review. Nitro-aromatic compounds are used worldwide as explosives, pesticides and as a feedstock for the manufacture of many products, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, fungicides and plastics. On the contrary, nitro-aromatic compounds are released into the biosphere exclusively from the anthropogenic sources. Nitro-aromatic compounds do not only come from manmade sources; they also are formed by some natural processes, such as photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. Extensive production and indiscriminate application of nitro-aromatic has led to environmental pollution. Hence, nitro-aromatic compounds are recognized as Hazardous Rating-3.