The palm oil exists in several forms: palm oil raw, not refined, of red color because very rich carotenoids, called «red palm oil». In Africa, it is generally sold and consumed rough, i.e. not having undergoes the stages of refining. Taking into account the quantity and relevance of existing work on the palm tree with oil, we limited our study of Elaeis guinensis of Congo Basin to the analysis of the oils taken on the ground of the natural palm plantations and of the plantations of the palm plantation of M'vouna (Gabon) and of the Rural Campus of Loukoko (Congo) the study of our samples reveals the presence of carotenoids between 400 and 480 nm, and the presence of the chlorophyllian pigments with 600 and 670 nm for the great number of analyzed spectra. In the palm oil, the contents of carotenoids extend between 400 and 480 nm. The total content carotenoids varies from 897,1 µg/ml with 1229,3 µg/ml for the samples of the Palm plantation of M'vouna (Franceville, Gabon), whereas for the samples of Loukoko (Congo) that varies from 583,1 µg/ml with 1110,5 µg/ml on average. During precipitation partial of the raw palm oils of Gabon, three cases of figure ariseed (progressive, brutal and null solidification). The content total polyphenols varies from 439 to 2516 µg/ml. Of all the analyzed samples, the sample of Congo contains the maximum of phenolic compounds (2516 µg/ml). Minimum of 439 µg/ml, being obtained on the sample of Gabon. Their high content in carotenoids, fatty-acid unsaturates and the strong content total polyphenols, make our different oils more beneficial as well in the nutritional plan as therapeutic. The objective of work is the physicochemical characterization of the raw palm oils of the Republic of Gabon and Congo. The physicochemical characteristics of these oils are given according to the conventional normalized methods. They are the analyzes such as the spectroscopic evaluation of the color, the content carotene, partial solidification and the content polyphenols.