Molecular characterization of Moroccan local fig (Ficus carica L.) germplasm was performed on the cultivars present in a collection of the National School of Agriculture of Meknes. A total of 22 fig samples were analysed using 7 ISSR primers and 9 loci S.S.R. A total of 54 I.S.S.R. polymorphic bands with an average of 8 per primers and 42 S.S.R. alleles with means 5 alleles per locus were revealed by these analyses. The ISSR markers allowed distinguishing 22 molecular profiles and S.S.R. loci differentiated between 21 different profiles. Pairwise Comparing, 87% of cultivars pairs were differentiated by 7 to 24 alleles and 89% by 9 to 29 ISSR bands. The statistical analysis and genetic distances have shown a wide molecular diversity in the collection, where the average observed heterozygosity was 0.42. The average similarity between cultivars is 70% using SSR markers and 71.6 for ISSR markers. The same SSR profile was obtained for Nabout1 and Nabout2 with 0 allele difference. Small differences of 1 to 6 alleles were obtained among cultivars which have the same names, which presumably corresponds to somaclonal variations obtained through intense vegetative propagation over long periods, while the differences over 7 alleles suggests the problems of homonyms.