This work presents the numerical simulation and analysis of the turbulent flow over a two-dimensional channel with a backward-facing step. The computational simulation performed in this study is based on the Reynolds equations using a technique denominated Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS). The main objective of the present work is the comparison of different models of turbulence applied to the turbulent flow over a backward-facing step. The performance of each RANS model used will be discussed and compared with the results obtained through a direct numerical simulation present in the literature. The RANS turbulence models used are k-ω, k-ε, Shear Stress Transport k-ω (SST k-ω) and the second-order closure model called Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The Reynolds number used in all the numerical simulations constructed in this study is equal to 9000, based on the height of the step h and the inlet velocity Ub. The results are the reattachment length, the mean velocity profiles and the turbulence intensities profiles. The k-ε model obtained poor results in most of the analyzed variables in this study. Among the RANS turbulence models, the SST k-ω model presented the best results of reattachment length, mean velocity profile and contour when compared to results obtained in the literature. The RSM model found the best results of turbulence intensity profile, when compared to the models of two partial differential equations that use the Boussines hypothesis.