Plant species grown in the Mediterranean region have been selected for an experimental study regarding plant ability to endure harsh, abiotic conditions such as water deficiency. Young plants of Ceratonia siliqua L., Myrtus communis L., Nerium oleander L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) were placed in elongated plastic tubes and rhizotrons, which allow non-destructive observations of plant material, and were grown under controlled light and temperature conditions, with varying irrigation patterns in a growth chamber, for a 30-day period. Sugar, proline and chlorophyll content were measured in above and below ground tissues of the considered species, during the 30-day experimental period. The results show that Ceratonia siliqua, Myrtus communis and Nerium oleander are more capable of enduring drought conditions, in comparison to Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.). The results can be used for planning green urban landscapes with introduction of naturalistic planting, using plant species adapted to the scarcity of water during prolonged, ambient drought conditions.