American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is one of the parasites with specific characteristics in several regions of Brazil. In recent years, there have been variations in the increase in the number of cases of this disease in different regions of the country. In the state of Rondônia, ACL is considered one of the endemic diseases. Objective: This study described epidemiological aspects of ACL in a subspace of Rondônia, Western Amazon, in the period between 2012 and 2013. Method: This is a retrospective epidemiological study developed in 02 municipalities located in the south of Rondônia according to with model developed by Paraguassu-Chaves  comprising the municipalities of Vilhena and Chupinguaia. Results: The study revealed that 370 human cases of ACL were reported in the study period. The male gender predominated with (89.5%) of the total cases, the age range (20 to 39) years (36.6%) prevailed, low schooling (80%) had a maximum of complete elementary education (62.5%). The greatest number of cases came from the urban zone (66.9%), resulting from the adaptation of sandflies to the periurbanization of cities in the Amazon, as predicted by Paraguassu-Chaves . Some of these variables presented significant differences when compared to production and distribution in the State of Rondônia. Prevalence of autochthonous cases was 81.7%. Regarding the clinical aspects, the cutaneous lesion (CL) predominated with 90.8% of the new cases. As expected, the cases confirmed by confirmation criteria indicate 89.5% clinical-laboratory confirmation in the studied subspace and 94% in the State of Rondônia. Of the cases confirmed by evolution of the case prevailed to cure with 77.5% and 12.5% ignored or recorded in the blank. The dropout still stands out negatively with 8.4%. Conclusion: The ACL presents a public health problem due to its high endemicity. It was identified some important epidemiological variables for the study in the Brazilian Amazon and that can condition and / or determine areas associated with possible risks of infection by the parasites.