This study was to evaluate the exposure to methylmercury (HgMe) and the potential health risk of Tupari Indians through the consumption of their main foods. Were collection of samples of plant foods and muscle tissue from different species of fish and wild animals consumed in three villages of the Rio Branco Indigenous Land in Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. The HgMe was measured in an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer with gas chromatography. The statistical treatment of the data was performed by software R. Of the six different plant species, only sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) had mean concentrations of HgMe above the limit of detection of the analytical technique for the three villages. There was a significant difference in the levels of HgMe between the species of wild animals and fish belonging to the same alimentary habit. Carnivores presented higher levels of HgMe than those obtained for non-predators, both for fish and for wild animals. The results of the assessment of the potential risk to indigenous health indicated a total HgMe of the weekly ingestion rate (WIR) of between 8.4 and 15.0 μg / kg of body weight for the villages evaluated, extrapolating all reference doses ( RfD) regarding for the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). The risk quotients (RQ) varied from 5.3 to 21.4, considerably exceeding the limit (RQ ≤ 1), which allows to consider the impossibility of toxic effects of HgMe. The fishes accounted for the highest percentage of WIR of HgMe for all villages, with an emphasis on predatory species. Considering the nutritional value of fish meat, it is suggested the continuity of the consumption of this meat in the villages with preference for non-carnivores.