Sorghum is the third most important staple cereal crop in Uganda after maize and millet. Downy mildew disease is one of the most devastating fungal diseases which limits the production and productivity of the crop. The disease is caused by an obligate fungus, Peronosclerospora sorghi (Weston & Uppal) with varying symptoms. Information on the genetic diversity and population structure of P.sorghi in sorghum is imperative for the screening and selection for resistant genotypes and further monitoring possible mutant(s) of the pathogen. Isolates of P. sorghi infecting sorghum are difficult to discriminate when morphological descriptors are used. The use of molecular markers is efficient, and reliably precised for characterizing P. sorghi isolates. This study was undertaken to assess the level of genetic diversity and population structure that exist in P. sorghi isolates in Uganda. A total of 195 P. sorghi isolates, sampled from 13 different geographic populations from 10 different regions (agro-ecological zones) was used. Eleven (11) molecular markers, comprising of four Random amplified microsatellite (RAM) and seven (7) Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers were used in this study. The analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) based on 11 microsatellite markers showed significant (P < 0.001) intra-population (88.9 %, PhiPT = 0.111) and inter-population (8.4 %, PhiPR = 0.083) genetic variation, while the genetic variation among regions (2.7 %, PhiRT = 0.022) was not significant. The highest genetic similarity value (0.987 = 98.7 %) was recorded between Pader and Lira populations and the lowest genetic similarity (0.913 = 91.3 %) was observed between Namutumba and Arua populations. The mean Nei's genetic diversity index (H) and Shannon Information Index (I) were 0.308 and 0.471 respectively. Seven distinct cluster groups were formed from the 195 P. sorghi isolates based on their genetic similarity. Mantel test revealed no association between genetic differentiation and geographical distance (R2 = 0.0026, p = 0.02) within the 13 geographic populations.