In Africa, forest cover and timber resources experienced a sharp decline, especially in the last thirty years. Burkina Faso has experienced major droughts, especially from1965-1966to 1991-1992 and 1994 – 1995 with serious impact on agriculture, water resources and natural vegetation as well as the indirect consequences on health, economy and institutions. The forests are located in areas dominated by subsistence production agricultural and many herds of cattle. The growing needs for firewood leads to anarchic cuts causing the deterioration of forest genetic resources. The Biosphere Reserve of “Mare aux hippopotames (RBMH)” although its International statute knows these phenomena. The study aims generally to contribute to an assessment of the impacts of climate change on the lands occupation of the Biosphere reserve. The specific objectives are: i) understand the perception of the people on climate change and its effects; (ii) study the dynamics of lands occupation in the RBMH and iii) Identify the causes of decline of ecosystems. The approach consisted in a diachronic analysis to assess the dynamics of lands occupation and semi structured interviews to collect the effects and manifestations of climate change with60 men and 40 women from 10 villages of the RBMH.A list of 29 climate resiliencehas beencited by all the villages. The incidence of disease is the largest followed by the lack of drinking water and drought; floods, overload work and drought are the most severe. Our results could contribute to take actions coping with climate change and variability.