Breast cancer is an important public health problem, with an estimated 3.2 million new cases by the year 2050. Diet plays a key role in the etiology of breast cancer and breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer. On the other hand, the improvement of the therapeutic properties of bioactive compounds through their incorporation into microcarriers is an important strategy in obtaining new therapies, since cyclical changes in concentration are eliminated; there is biological availability of the compound as well as the reduction in toxicity, number dose and suppression of adverse reactions. Studies using hormones such as melatonin extracted from human milk adsorbed onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres showed that the controlled release of this compound was able to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cell lines. Colostrum differs from most of the secretions because it contains viable leukocytes during the first days of lactation with a quantity and activity comparable to blood leukocytes, and has several defense components such as antibodies and hormones, such as melatonin (MLT). This review details the influence of the soluble and cellular components present in human colostrum, such as the MLT hormone, as the modified release systems influence the action of MLT and the possible mechanisms involved that contribute to the hypothesis of reduction of breast cancer in women who breastfed.